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Al.Anbar University Journal for Humanities (JUAH) is a Journal of Scientific Research on Humanities Sciences published by the University Of Anbar - College Of Education for Humanities since 1995 under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY). The journal publishes four a year (March, June, September and December). JUAH aims to disseminate distinguished scientific research to various fields of Humanities sciences. We invite original work and research in various fields of Humanities sciences and related papers, reviews and short communications of content related to Humanities...
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Economic and cultural relations between the United States of America and Iraq 1968-1972

Jamal Hashem Dhuwaib; Salem Ismael Mustafa

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3237-3255
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176844

Iraq announced its new foreign policy after the Baath Party assumed power in Iraq in 1968, when it called for the establishment of economic and cultural relations with the countries of the world based on mutual respect with all countries, especially with the United States of America, whose relations were severed with it because of the Arab-Israeli war in 1967 due to bias The United States of America to the Zionist entity. However, this did not stop the economic and cultural exchange between the two countries, especially with the presence of a very strong competitor to the United States of America, which is the Soviet Union. This is what made it work to restore and improve its relations with Iraq. This research is a summary of the US-Iraqi economic and cultural relations for the year 1968-1972..

Sayyid Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi and his political role in Sudan until 1920

Ahmed Rashid Juraithi; Saleema Sataa Mohammed Ali

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3255-3276
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176845

This  thesis concentrates on the life  of  Abdul- Rahman Al-Mahdi , his political and national role in the liberalization and independence of Sudan . I have investigated the most important political events in Sudan in which Al –Mahdi had significant and impressive role in seeking the benefits of  his country and its natives . He had struggled to fulfill  his only desire  which is represented by the  Independence of Sudan.

Acting Commanders of Al- Duleim Brigade 1920_1924

احمد سعدی; Fahmi A. Farhan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3277-3297
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176846

Most researchers have turned during the past period to study local history because of its importance and influence on the history of contemporary Iraq. The subject of the Al-Duleim brigade's acting commanders in the royal era is considered one of the important subjects that have not been studied previously and through which the personalities who reached the position of the acting commanders  during the royal era, who were mostly from outside the brigade.

the cultural role of the Iraqi Jews in the nineteenth century

Luma A. Mustafa

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3298-3320
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176847

The Jews existence in Iraq was related with three human migration waves to Iraq beginning from the third century B.C. and the subsequent periods. The Jews lived in Iraq in an atmosphere of religious tolerance and freedom to practice their rituals and their religious institutions in addition to practicing many economic  activities.
Ottomans granted freedom to the religious minorities including the Jewish in terms of establishing their educational institutions and the core of these institutions was the inauguration AlAlyans school for boys in Baghdad in 1864 and this was followed by opening several Jewish  schools in the Iraqi provinces. With the increase of the number of graduates these schools and the cultural awareness of those school graduates a number of intellectuals emerged who had their own contribution including issuing a number of newspapers and some of them tended to establish several Jewish press houses, which had an important role in terms of providing the Iraqi Library with a big number of books.

The political position of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the League of Arab States on the Iraqi-Iranian war (1980-1988 AD)

Nibras R. Whaieb; Yousif Sami Farhan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3321-3349
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176848

This study deals with the political attitude of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the Arab League regarding the Iraqi-Iranian war, given the importance of studying the subject of political relations in contemporary Arab history, and the regional weight of these two countries.
During that period, the Arab arena witnessed many important events and developments, which were reflected in the foreign policy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia towards these events, especially within the borders of the Arab League, as the positions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were at the level of responsibility that fell on the shoulders of the Arab countries to stand by the countries of the Levant It also called on all Arab countries to stand united against the violations committed by Iran against the brotherly Iraqi people, and to reject everything that goes on in the policy of some Arab rulers at the expense of some Arab countries out of fear for their interests with the major countries, especially the United States of America. Saudi Arabia is all attempts that call for unity and joint Arab action. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has made an effective contribution within the corridors of the Arab League in supporting Iraq to stop the war that affected all the countries of the Arab Gulf. Therefore, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia intervened forcefully through the Arab League to stop the war, and it was crowned Its efforts by the United Nations decision to stop the war in 1988.

The Economic developments in the United States of America 1900-1920

Abid Hussein Abid

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3349-3382
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176849

The U.S. economy has witnessed a clear development since the beginning of the 20th century, as its economy was moving towards outperforming the economies of the major countries at the time, especially Britain, Germany and France, where the United States of America provided its loans to all parties of the war, and those loans were at interest ranged from 5-7 percent, and the economic factor was the reason for the delay in entering World War I, and entered the battles at a time when its economy required to enter the war to end the state of war, and benefit from peace and beyond, The results of the war as a whole declared that the victorious power of World War I was the United States of America, because of the huge revenues it earned for the American economy, and the American economic power seemed superior to the economies of the countries of the world.
After the end of the war, the United States of America participated in the settlements that took place after which it made more wealth than it earned from the war and even obliged the countries of the world to pay their debts to the United States of America, and a number of developments of the war and its settlements in the administration of Woodrow Wilson.
The research section to: Three investigations: the first research addressed the American economy before World War I, and the second research touched on the American economy since 1914 the beginning of World War I, the third research came the development of the American economy from world war until 1920, and concluded the research with a conclusion and list of sources.

The position of the US government on the disputes with Mexico from 1877 to 1881

Zainab Hashem Jaryan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3383-3398
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176850

The history of the United States of America is one of the disciplines worthy of study, due to what the history of this country contains of important events and developments in all political, economic and social levels and the repercussions of these events not only on the United States itself but also on the external level as well. American policy was taken after the civil war In 1861-1865, a different policy, after the unification of its northern and southern states was achieved, had established good relations and a peaceful foreign policy with many countries of the world, and therefore President Hayes wanted to pursue that policy based on non-escalation and relative calm in the relations of the United States of America with most countries almost the world.

Rivers in the cities of Anbar through the books of travelers and countrymen from the third century to the end of the ninth century AH

Prof. Dr. Othman Abdul-Aziz Saleh Abdul-Aziz Al-Muhammadi; Talal I. Ibrahim

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3399-3428
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176851

The study targeted the books of travelers and geographers who wrote about the history of Anbar and its rivers during the Islamic eras and explained some of its plans. It provided us with a picture that can be extrapolated in their writings such as Ibn Khordadbeh, al-Yaqoubi, al-Baladhuri, al-Hamdani, al-Istakhri, Ibn Hawqal, al-Maqdisi, al-Idrisi, al-Hamwi and others, as they described the sources of the rivers, their geography and the buildings erected on them.
In this study, we tried to talk about the most prominent rivers and the cities located on their banks, and to explain the urbanization on their sides, as well as their role in the prosperity of economic life in the cities of Anbar.

Scientific life in the Rashidun era

Zaben Khalaf Nawaf

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3429-3453
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176852

          Islam is the religion of knowledge and knowledge. The verses and hadiths of the Prophet stipulated this, and the Companions practiced knowledge and urged to learn it and sat to benefit and guide people, and the caliphs were the first layer of companions in science and learning. And since the Holy Qur’an was the original in the legislation, the Companions memorized it, studied it and worked with its texts, so they were role models for those who came after them in the readings and interpretation and the provisions of the Qur’an                     .
The hadith is also the second original in the legislation, so the sayings of the Messenger (may God bless him and grant him peace) and his actions and reports were based on the most beautiful of the Qur’an. The hadith also included many things that were not stipulated in the Qur’an, so the honorable companions preserved those hadiths and worked on them and communicated to those who came after them. And after jurisprudence, which means understanding, is what the companions understood from the text of the law, the book and    the Sunnah, and what must be done in matters of acts of worship and transactions that were drawn up by the jurists from the book and the Sunnah

Women's Awqaf in the Arab Islamic state on mosques and Masjids

Badie M. Ibrahim; Marwa M. Ghazi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3454-3488
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176853

The study targeted the contribution of women to the endowment of mosques and mosques throughout the historical ages, because of their belief in its religious, scientific, educational and charitable impact. the side .
The endowment for mosques is one of the most important financial resources in order to continue to perform the duties and tasks that it performs, such as the role of memorizing the Holy Qur’an, supporting preachers and preachers in practicing their roles in developing the meanings of goodness and truth, urging jihad for the sake of God, and addressing people’s issues and problems in life

The profession of pearling and fishing in Bahrain, a study in economic history

Fawaz Jazzaa; Rami Kh. Hammad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3489-3519
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176854

This study sheds light on the pearling and fishing professions in Bahrain as they have an important place in the economic history of the region and showed the nature of this profession and the working conditions of its cadres to accomplish a task that is not easy , but rather drains the effort and makes huge sacrifices. And preparing the supplies and tools for pearl fishing, with a statement of the work cadres and the distribution of task, as well as the places of diving seasons for fishing, how it is formed its types, weights and prices, and the taxes imposed on it. Different types of means to catch them and they became familiar with all kinds of fish and methods of fishing and reaping the abundant profit..

Aspects of social life in Oman from the third century AH to the end of the eighth century AH

Abduljabbar M. Shrems; Nour B. Mohammed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3520-3539
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176855

Oman is one of the most important Islamic regions due to its geographical, historical and cultural location, which is reflected in the social reality in it. Because of the trade practiced by the Omanis during the pre-Islamic era and after the Islamic conquests, it made the people of Oman open in their relations with the rest of the peoples. The Omanis spread the Islamic religion through trade, but Oman itself contained a number of non-Muslims, Christians, Jews and Magi from the remnants of the Persian state, which was reflected in the aspects of social life that we are about to study.

The progeny of my master Ali Abhloul united with the chains of the collections of hadiths of the Messenger, may God bless him and grant him peace Imam Burhan Al-Din Al-Laqani (d. 1040 A.H.)

Kamran Saad Allah Al-Zankaneh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3539-3595
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176856

The dictionaries of Sheikhs occupy sheikhdoms and vacations; of great importance among men's science books; for its authors to take care of recording information about their sheikhs; Those who were contemporaries with them, and the truth is that the licenses of the sheikhs are the main component of the historical material that we find in the translation books, and the most reliable and accurate. Or what he read.
In fact, they are contemporary documents that dealt with information they experienced; And they were in some contact with those who wrote about them, so their information, which was recorded in these sheikhdoms or holidays, was not; They are all copied from sources composed before them, but they contain a lot of what was invented by the owner of the sheikhdom or the permit, and they became sources for those who came after them.” Lots.
Ibrahim al-Laqani published in the eleventh century one of the important documents - the ijazah - among the Algerians; because many of them praised it; And they learned it. He was a reputable master of Maliki jurisprudence. It is noteworthy that Ibrahim al-Laqani did not grant the license to a specific Algerian scholar; rather, he granted a license to a group of Algerian scholars, such as Ali bin Mubarak al-Qulayi, Said Qaddoura and Sahnun Rafiq Sidi Ali al-Bahlul. The leave included others, of course, but we did not see it. And he said at the end of the licence: “I allow for those mentioned, for their children, and for the people of their country… all that the warning has been passed on, and all that it is permissible for me and me to narrate; from reading, audio, metaphor, offices, correspondence, origins, branch, reasonable and transmitted.” It is a general license in its kind and in its purpose. Because it is not related to a specific type of science or to one scientist in Algeria

Byzantine-Crusader Relations from the Establishment of the Byzantine Empire to the End of the Fourth Crusade

Mohammed S. Hashem; Majeed M. Naief

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3596-3626
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176857

The Byzantine Empire was born from the womb of the Roman Empire in Europe, separated from it, and formed their own empire, whose natures are different from the uncivilized peoples and inhabitants of Europe who are characterized by strength, cruelty and brutality. The trait of caution doubt and suspicion prevailed these relation and the attempt to grab What is in the hand of the other and to set him up whenever he has the opportunity, even if he is on their faith for which they came, and we find this thing present with the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I and other kings of Byzantium, after asking for sapport from the Western European (the Crusaders) his brothers in religion and belief against the Seljuks The Muslims regretted and guarded them and feared for his sovereign and his state, and over the years and ages, the relations between them became bad and gradually became tense, and the kings, crusader princes and men of the Catholic Church continued to pressure the Byzantine state in order to control and seize its property and wealth and to merge its church with the mother church in Rome until those relations collapsed . This intervention took different forms and images until, in the end, they prepared a new crusade Campaign from Europe known as the (Fourth Crusade Crusade), through which they were able to occupy Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, and the sword worked in its people by killing, plundering and looting the city and burning it with brutality, until its people wished that their city had fallen in the hands of the Muslims, when they heard of the Muslims’ tolerance when they conquered Bait Al-Maqdis and others.

The political and economic relationship of the Kingdom of Ashkelon with Egypt and the Assyrians

Shaiban Th. Alrawi; Tameem A. Jubair

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3627-3645
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176858

      Several factors came together in the formation of the political, military and commercial importance of the city of Ashkelon, as it is considered the northern gateway for Egypt to penetrate the Levant and control its cities, and its commercial importance is no less important than its political position, as it is an important commercial port, as it passes through trade between the East And the West, so we find Egyptian politics always keen to have Ashkelon under its protections and subordination, and this situation exists as long as the Egyptian authority is strong, except that in the last periods of BC and after the weakness of the Egyptian authority it came under the Assyrian rule and the gate from which the armies entered to invade Egypt, These facts are all confirmed by the historical blogs on the topic.

The Rise Of The Royal Dynasty In The Kingdom of Yamkhad During The Second Millennium B.C

Jamal N. Salih; Yasser J. Shawkat

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3646-3678
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176859

This study aims to identify the kings of the ruling dynasty that was established in the kingdom of Yamkhad in Syria, and the political conditions and developments that led to the establishment of that dynasty during the second millennium BC, especially since the kingdom of Yamkhad was one of the most important and powerful kingdoms that appeared in northern Syria during the period The first half of the second millennium BC, that important period full of its political events and its civilizational importance, and this kingdom had an active and influential role in those events, and its influence was not limited to within the borders of the country of Syria, but went beyond it to outside it, and it had its political effectiveness in the history of the ancient Near East..

Aanah, Its Political and Civilized History until The End Of The Assyrian Era

Ahmed Abdullah Fadhel

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3689-3711
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176860

The research dealt with the importance of the ancient town of Aanah including its political, administrative and commercial center. Such things gave this town a significance that is why it was inhabited by a large number of residents. This city has many cultural evidence and archaeological monuments and it was under the Sumerian, Akkadian and Babylonian rulers.  Historically, the Assyrians set up their camps on it. Due to its importance, geographical location, immunity and beauty many armies fought to cease it. The town of Aanah is considered one of the most important cities belonging to the country of Sukhi, as it was the capital of the mentioned country and the Governor's Residence was there too.        

The principles of peace and their impact on Iraqi society

Anas Isam Ismael

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3712-3729
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176861

Islam (surrender) and Salam (peace) are two words derived from the same root. They are the slogan of Muslims in every spot of the earth. In every civil or cooperative occasion, the Quran calls, encourages and urges for security and peace. Also, the life of Muhammad (PBUH) is full of examples which promote peace in reality and practice. And as such were the rightly guided Caliphs after Muhammad (PBUH). Peace in Islam has several principals that originate in the two infallible sources (Quran and Sunnah) and in the life of the greatest prophet (PBUH).  The books of religious policy and history are full of the deeds of the Muslim rulers who chose peace as their way to follow, even in the battlefields, let aside with their enemies – as we will see later in this paper-.
The importance of peace is dwelt in the human’s natural need for it. Therefor the absence of peace and calmness are among the hardest difficulties a mankind could face. Allah (the most graceful) had granted the tribe of Quraish the favour of peace and reminded them of it

Integrated education and knowledge-building (social theoretical study)

Maath Ahmed Hasan; Abdullah Hamad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3730-3758
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176862

The current study aimed to know the reality of blended education in the Iraqi society, in addition to standing on the most prominent obstacles and challenges facing teachers and students in the application of blended education and an attempt to overcome and overcome them. As well as diagnosing the pros and cons of blended education (e-learning - traditional education) on students' acquisition of knowledge building in their academic courses.

Turkish Propaganda Methods for Arabs through the Electronic Journalism: An Analytical Study of the Press Articles Published on the Turkish Arabic-speaking (Turk Press TP) website.

Raad K. Hafez; Nuzhat M. Nafal

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3759-3782
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176863

The study aimed to reveal the methods of Turkish propaganda directed towards the Arabs through websites, in addition to identifying the Turkish foreign policy and the mechanisms of its strategic dealings with the Arab countries. With the objectives marked for the research, and the method (content analysis) was chosen as an appropriate method in the applied procedures of the research after a comprehensive inventory of the press articles published on the website of the Turkish Arabic-speaking (Turk Press TP) agency (the research sample) was made during the study period for the purpose of identifying the methods of Turkish electronic propaganda directed towards the Arabs.
The study reached several results, the most important of which can be highlighted: Turkish propaganda appeared through the contents of the press articles published on the website of the (Turk Press TP) news agency through the use of five propaganda methods that are more persuasive and more comprehensive than other propaganda methods, namely.

Geopolitical location of Iraq and its impact on its foreign policy

Omer Kamel Hasan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3783-3824
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176864

The study presents a geopolitical analysis of Iraq's location and its impact on its foreign policy. This required a definition of the concept of foreign policy according to a geopolitical perspective. To prove validity of hypotheses, study focused on analyzing material foundations on which Iraq's foreign policy is based: economic and demographic focus. In addition to researching political history of Iraq’s foreign relations, and determining trends of Iraqi foreign policy after 2003 by presenting applied models of Iraq’s foreign political behavior towards geopolitical conflicts in surrounding geographical area. Iraq’s new trends in international and regional environment, which have long suffered and are still suffering from harbingers affecting its security and stability, based on theory of negative rebound effect. The policy of seizing control and seeking initiative and mediation in a region that was and still is rife with crises, one after other.

The geopolitical vision of the transnational outer space organization and its impact on fragile states (Iraq after the American in 2003 as a model)

Wedad Hammad Mekhlif

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3825-3870
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176865

The current research started from problems identified about the impact of the geopolitical dimension on the spread of transnational organized crime in the era of globalization, and does the fragile geopolitical environment have a conducive effect on its spread. The research aimed to identify the dimensions of transnational organized crime and the impact of the geopolitical perspective on transnational organized crime. The research was concerned with defining organized crime according to multiple dimensions before developing a geopolitical perspective on transnational organized crime and identifying its patterns and reasons for its spread, then determining how it spread in fragile countries, so that the research model was chosen Iraq in the period after the American occupation of it in 2003 and to study the case of the spread of organized crime patterns In it and analyzing the factors of its spread in order to reach a number of conclusions on the subject, the most important of which were; The spread of transnational organized crime has an effective geopolitical dimension that is seen through its perpetration and its impact in more than one country, and that fragile states are a conducive environment for the spread of transnational organized crime, especially since those countries are prone to high rates of political and administrative corruption in them. Then a number of recommendations related to the research topic were developed.

The geomorphological risks of the Bastoura Valley in northern Iraq

Rasha A. Sarhan; Meshaal Faisal Ghadhib

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3871-3883
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176866

Valley Bastorh Basin is located in the northern part of Iraq in (the northeastern part of the city of Irbil within the administrative border to Shaqlawa distract) between latitudes (15َ 36ْ, 29َ 36ْ) in the north and length (49َ 43ْ, 28َ 44ْ) to the east. The surface area of ​​the basin is 503.9 k.m2. The geographical site of the basin determined by of the Great Zab River from the northwest and Sven and Biermam Mounts from the northeast. Its sources descends from the highlands located between the chains of Sven & Biermam mountains, in this extension, the length of the river in the area would be (98.6) km2 from upstream to downstream.
    The study included, the geomorphological hazards of Bastorh valley and its secondary basins. The result was building a model of the geomorphological dangers in the tubs of the studied. All the data on the study had been collected through the preparation of maps and building a data base using (Arc GIS 10.3) program to be the beginning of an integrated database utilized researchers and planners for the development of the region.

Evaluation of the efficiency of the spatial distribution of some services provided by the municipality of Ramadi city

Abdulnaser Sabri Al Shaher; Ayat H. Jassem

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3884-3908
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176867

The focus in this research is on the study and analysis of an important part of the community services system, The nature of the spatial distribution of these services in the city of Ramadi was highlighted, and the extent of the efficiency of this distribution and its consistency with the needs of the population in all residential neighborhoods.
In order to achieve the hypothesis of the research, and to reach the desired results, the Lorenz curve was used to find out the fairness of the distribution of services provided by the competent municipal department for a group of municipal departments in the city of Ramadi, and the Gini coefficient was used to measure the size of equality in the services provided, Provided by the municipal departments, and as shown in the body of the research.

Geographical analysis of the services sector in the rural center of Ramadi district

Yassin Hameed Bedaa; Marah Th. Juma

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3909-3933
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176868

It became clear through the study and analysis of the reality of the service sector in the countryside of the Ramadi district center, there is a clear decline in all components of this sector due to considerations related to the weak government spending to develop it and the destruction it was subjected to as a result of political and security events, which negatively affected the nature of the existing reality of the service sector, foremost of which was low levels  Educational services and the educational level mainly among the rural population due to the lack of equitable distribution of educational institutions in addition to the presence of a clear discrepancy in secondary schools and the number of teaching staff in addition to being below planning standards as well as the low health services and their inability to meet the basic requirements of the rural population with a shortage  A large number of specialized medical staff and basic medical supplies, and a large deficit in housing units as a result of the large population concentration and the increase in the number of individuals within the housing unit, with the poor efficiency of transportation methods throughout the study area.

Climatic treatments of the urban reality in the city of Fallujah using the Delphi method

Firas F. Mahdi; Zainab H. Abid

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3934-3963
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176869

The planning and design of residential neighborhoods and their units is adopted according to the requirements of the prevailing climate on the criterion of thermal comfort, so the study aims to rely on the Delphi method process in assessing the importance of climatic elements in the future directions of the reality of urban planning in the city of Fallujah, and by analyzing the results of the planning directions of this statistical method, we can Access to the best climatic treatments for the reality of urbanization in the study area in order to achieve the ideal comfort for humans and their sense of environmental comfort. Therefore, successful climatic treatments must participate collectively in future planning directions and evaluate those directions through a scientific team consisting of various types of experts, especially climatologists and architects in order to Giving a role to specialists in following up the variables and determining them according to the available capabilities, taking their opinion into account, and their role starts from collecting information and data and ending with guidance and implementation. This method is one of the best types of methods that combine public participation in setting directions and planning policies with the official participation of all specialists and planners so that the formulation of the decision in identifying problems and addressing them is integrated with each other based on correct and successful scientific foundations.

Promising water energy investment potential and its role in supporting the Arar border complex in Anbar Governorate

Nadhir S. Hamad; Omer A. Hammad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3964-3985
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176870

The study area enjoys a large abundance of renewable energy sources, especially water energy, due to the group of valleys that cut its surface, so it can be invested in supporting the services of the support structures in the Arar border complex, for this, the analytical-quantitative approach was used, as well as the meteorological data for rain. It appears that the Arar border complex is penetrated by Arar Valley, whose water discharge amounted to about (776) m3/sec, with a height of (7) m, and this is due to the annual total of rain, which ranges between (102-116) mm, which are suitable quantities for the operation of some types of water. The turbines producing electrical energy, and the research concluded that the Arar complex needs electrical energy of up to (781140) watt-hours/day at a rate of (781.14) kilowatt-hours with a total operation of (80) hours, and part or all of this energy can be provided through Construction of a hydroelectric system with economic costs amounting to (781.140) US dollars, at (1000) dollars for each kilowatt valley, which are suitable costs compared to the production of energy from traditional sources.

The change in the reality of agricultural production of (grain) crop in the countryside of Ramadi district for the period 1980-2020

Khaled Akbar Al Hamdani; Omer T. Freih

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3986-4000
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176871

The study aims to identify the reality of agricultural lands in the countryside of the Ramadi district, we find that urban sprawl has become a rampant phenomenon in most of its areas, and it is considered one of the environmental disasters that afflicted the cultivated areas in light of the ineffectiveness of laws and decisions that limit them, as well as a set of natural and political variables Economic, personal and administrative have had a role in bulldozing these large areas of land and changing its gender . There are many urban forms that have been taken from the agricultural lands in the district as their location, represented by housing units of different types, warehouses, laboratories and shops with their different functions, and special service projects such as schools, medical, recreational and religious complexes and other uses. Therefore, the study dealt with the agricultural reality in the district for the period from 1980-2020.

Adopting a model (EPM) and using geomatics techniques, spatial modeling of the activity of erosion processes (Wadi Al-Tarthar Case Study)

Ahmed Flaieh Fayadh; Abdulqader M. Saleh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4001-4021
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176872

The study area is located in the northwestern part of Iraq, represented by the Tharthar Valley basin between latitudes (21 23 34) and (22 26 36) north and arc length (3 42 41) and (42 21 43) east, as the area of the area is (22622 km2) ), that the advantage of using the (EPM) model is that it is one of the most appropriate models in diagnosing the levels of erosion of large areas, through an overlap between the various environmental factors of the region, and this model was designed by (Gavrilovic) in the fifties of the last century and did not gain the attention of researchers until after The revolution that took place in the development of geographic information systems programs, and depends in its application on the coefficient of temperature, rain, vegetation cover (NDVI) and soil properties, and depends on integrating all these parameters into the program (ARC GIS 10.4) by adopting specific mathematical formulas to obtain erosion levels in the region The importance of studying the Tharthar Valley basin is that it extends in vast areas of the Iraqi country in an area that is the main source of surface water, whose investment reflects an important wealth in Iraq’s economy. For erosion, the region is located in five levels, of which it begins with unclear erosion and ends with strong erosion, with the exception of the sixth level, which represents the catastrophic level and the capacity of erosion uprooted as a whole in the region at (13,000) m 3 / year and varies from one place to another, and the study has proven the effectiveness of using modern technologies in calculating levels of erosion. This model.

Geographical analysis of the efficiency of religious services in the city of Ramadi (mosques as a model)

Abdulrazaq M. Jabbar; Huda T. Najm

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4022-4046
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176873

The official departments in the city of Ramadi, which go beyond services such as cemeteries and hospice, which go beyond services such as graves and hospice, and which go beyond religious services in the city of Ramadi.
Since its inception with the rest of the services, the religious devotional and service institutions have varied in quality, quantity and area in the residential neighborhoods numbering (30) neighborhoods distributed among them the religious services, which numbered (122 religious institutions), where the largest share of mosques was (85 mosques).
     The study aims to identify the reality of the geographical distribution of religious services in the city of Ramadi and determine the extent of their efficiency. The sample was extracted based on the Stephen Thumpstone equation

Problems facing agricultural (vegetable) production in Fallujah district for the year 2021 and ways to address them

Salah M. Jasem; Wasan M. Jadiea; Jenan A. Abbas

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4047-4076
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176874

The research aims to study the most important problems faced by agricultural production (plant) in the district of Fallujah for the year 2021, in addition to presenting the most important factors that led to the occurrence of problems and highlighting them and trying to reduce their effects in order to achieve the optimal use of agricultural lands in the study area. Keywords: Fallujah district, agricultural (plant) production, problems it faces..

Improving the digital elevation model of topographic maps in GIS (applied study on Al-Tharthar Lake)

Ali Khalil Khalaf Al-Jabiri

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4077-4100
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176875

The research aims to be an attempt by the researchers to apply improving the model of the digital rise, thus opening the way for researchers who are interested in developing and expanding this idea in the future. The development of the improved digital elevation model within the boundaries of Al-Tharthar Lake its elevation levels means the unimproved digital elevation model within the lake boundaries of Mozaic topographic maps, in order to avoid the limitations of the unimproved digital elevation model that shows the entire lake at a level   of 44 meters above sea level, so the improved digital elevation model shows its morphological, hydrological, topographic and topographic properties within the lake's various elevations within the lake's various elevations within the boundaries of the lake.
These proposed steps in the research have proven to be efficient in improving digital elevation models, and the improved digital elevation model has proven to be highly effective in giving a high-level geo-reality perception of the lake greater credibility than it does: the unimproved digital elevation model as well as the old topographic maps. One of the recommendations of the research, recommends the Ministry of Water Resources and General directorate of Survey do accurate field survey principally hydrographic survey for lakes and rivers of the country through the marine area devices which are the best way to represent the topography of the lake with very high accuracy on two levels: horizontal topographic morphometric, vertical interval and elevation levels from both local and national geodesic reference. Consequently, the possibility of updating topographic maps which belong to 20th century

Geomorphological risks of erosion and floods in the Wadi Al-Maleh basin

Hind Tareq Majeed Al. Samaraei

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4101-4134
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176876

The research aims to determine the geomorphological risks of erosion and floods. The research relied on the quantitative approach in the study, identification and analysis of erosion and torrential risks based on the Snyder model, which represents one of the mathematical models adopted by the method in hydrological studies, as the region lacks stations to measure the discharge rates of torrents, and this research was done Studying the geological structure, climate characteristics, determining the numbers of water bodies and gully erosion rates, and after applying the Snyder model, the research concluded that the average flow volume is 280,000 cubic meters, and the congratulations classification was reached for the degrees of risk of torrential rains on the basins in the region.

Geographical distribution of streets equipped with lighting in the center of the city of Ramadi

Noor Odea Sabbar

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4135-4154
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176877

Transport represents the city’s beating nerve, which works to link activities with each other, and any defect in the city’s transport system leads to a reduction in the levels of luxury and comfort on the road. This is why the importance of relying on lighting has increased to enhance the functional and aesthetic performance of internal and external spaces.
In general, lighting is very important for workers in the field of interior design, whether it is natural or industrial lighting, and the use of lighting well generates reflections As for the human being and it is reflected in his behavior, just as the research problem is neglecting the role of street lighting and its various effects, and that most of the streets of Ramadi city are not equipped with lighting, and the study aims to collect information and analyzes deduced from field studies to come up with solutions and suggestions. Another, according to the available information, for the purpose of finding out whether the distances between one pole and another are distributed according to the lengths of the streets, a linear regression model was built between the two variables, where the length of the street was considered as an independent variable and the number of lighting poles As a dependent variable, and the result of using this model and showing the amount of dispersion occurring in the residual values, where the presence indicates a large extremism in some rates, which negatively affects the result of the model, and this matter is clearly evident in the standard residual repetitions, where the results show their departure from zero significantly, in addition to Using the simple linear regression equation, through which it becomes clear that there are two values in their estimation that exceed the 95% confidence limits, which leads to the inaccuracy of the model in the estimation, which in turn reflects the absence of a standard criterion for setting the distances between the columns.

A Qualitative Narrative Study of 21st Century Counsellor's Skills and the Sustainable Development Goals: Towards a Psychology of Sustainability

Bushra Ismaeil A. Arnawot

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4155-4200
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176878

This study aimed to identify the concept of the counselor skills from participants' point of view, and to reveal their perceptions about counseling aims and the skills needed by a counselor in the 21st century, using the narrative qualitative design on a purposive sample consisting of (22) psychological counselors, whose ages ranged from (31-46 years), with a mean age of 37.86 years and a standard deviation of 4.622. Data was collected from participants through stories, individual experiences using the semi-structured in-depth interview, counseling work reports, focus groups, and narrative framework. The results of the thematic analysis using the MAXQDA program revealed that the counselor's skills are defined as "professional mechanisms that include personal soft traits and technical hard skills on which the counselor relies to achieve the best results in his professional practices and bring about a voluntary change in the counselor's personality, behavior and performance in life, and help him to solve his problems, overcoming obstacles, creating opportunities for his personal growth, and reaching the maximum level of mental health, well-being, quality of life, and personal effectiveness by gaining and maintaining the client's trust. The results also found several skills that the counselor must possess in the 21st century, including: effective verbal and non-verbal communication; technique, thinking and innovation; problem solving; active citizenship; technical; stress of counseling work administrative; ask smart questions; motivating, encouraging and reassuring the client; maintain confidentiality of information; remembering and others. The results also indicated that counseling in the 21st century seeks to achieve various aims, including: for the individual to live a happy life full of achievement and work, making important decisions, personal development, planning for his future, making a voluntary change in his personality and behavior, self-understanding and acceptance, satisfaction with Life, increasing the quality of life and well-being, promoting desired behaviors, clairvoyance, acquiring a positive insight, developing social skills, optimal use of technology, developing thinking skills, and developing responsibility. All participants also agreed on the importance of the counselor skills in the counseling, as they are vital in forming a strong professional relationship and engagement between the client and the counselor, and help the counselor to do the right professional work with the least time and effort. In the light of these results, the current study recommended the importance of training counselors on counseling skills in the 21st century to achieve sustainable development, as well as the need for researchers and specialists to pay attention to the field of sustainability psychology, as it did not receive interest from specialists in the Arab world.

Systemic Thinking Among University Students

Sabah M. Manoukh; Omar Kh. Rashid

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4201-4233
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176879

This study aims to identify the systemic thinking among students of the University of Anbar, the significance of the statistical differences in systemic thinking according to the gender variables (males, females), and the specialization (scientific, humanitarian) among university students. The researchers adopted a descriptive correlative approach in their research. The research sample consisted of (320) male and female students from the University of Anbar for the academic year 2020-2021. The sample was chosen randomly, stratified sample. The researchers built a scale (Systemic thinking) according to Bartlett’s theory (Bartlett, 2001), which consisted of two areas, with a rate of (52) items, and the alternatives for correcting items were binary by giving a score of (1) to the answer that expresses the characteristic of Systemic thinking and giving (zero) to the answer that does not represent the attribute, The researchers verified the psychometric properties of the scale, using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), including: (chi-square, t-test for one sample, Point-Baserial correlation coefficient, and the Cronbach Alpha equation.
The results revealed the following:
University students are characterized by a high level of systemic thinking. There is no statistically significant difference according to the gender variable (males, females) in the systemic thinking scale. There is a statistically significant difference according to the specialization variable (scientific, humanitarian) in the systemic thinking scale in favor of the scientific specialization

Self-awareness and its relationship to the cognitive style (risk - caution) among graduate students

Ammar A. Farhan; Naji A. Rmaied

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4234-4273
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176880

The aim of the research is to identify the relationship between self-awareness and cognitive style (risk-caution) among a sample of graduate students at the University of Anbar, and to reveal the differences in self-awareness and cognitive style risk-caution according to the gender variable (male - female) and specialization (scientific - human). The study sample consisted of (420) male and female students, and the scale of self-awareness prepared by the researcher was applied to them according to the theory (Bas, 1976). . The researcher also adopted the cognitive style scale (risk - caution), which was prepared by (Abdul-Majid, 2008), and based on the theory of Kagan & Wallach (Kagan & Wallach, 1964), and the scale consisted in its final form on (23) items. After applying the appropriate statistical procedures, the results of the study showed that there is a direct correlation between self-awareness and cognitive style (risk - caution), as postgraduate students at the university use the cognitive method (risk) or graduate students with low self-awareness use the method. Cognitive (caution), and there are no differences in self-awareness among graduate students in the variable of gender and specialization, while it was found that male graduate students are distinguished by the cognitive style (risk) more than female students, and there are no differences in the cognitive style (risk - caution) Among the postgraduate students in the specialization (scientific - human), and in light of the results, the researcher made a number of recommendations and suggestions.

Psychological and Cognitive Developments among Adolescents - a Longitudinal Study-

Fuad Mohammed Frieh; Asmaa H. Abdulsatar

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4273-4304
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176881

Developmental changes are a successive series of changes that aim to complete the maturity of the human beings from the physical, mental, psychological and emotional aspects. These changes occur in a specific order and in a predictable way as a result of maturity and experience. To achieve the aim of the research, a main question was created: what is the level of the developmental changes among adolescents? Is there a relationship between the psychological and cognitive developments? Is the degree of changes differ according to sex and age? Accordingly, the current research aimed to identify the level of developmental changes among adolescents and the differences between developmental changes according to some demographic variables (sex - age). To achieve the aims of the research, (264) secondary school students were chosen from four schools. The age of the participants was between (14-17) years. To measure the developmental changes, the Rehacom system was adopted. After the analysis, the results of the current research showed that the level of developmental changes was high and statistically significant.

Anger Management for Primary School Female Teachers

Safi A. Saleh; Ranya H. Mousa

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4304-4329
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176882

The current research aimed to identify anger management, and to identify the levels of this concept among the sample members, and the differences in those levels according to the demographic variables (years of experience), (age), (marital status). 
The research community included (primary school teachers) in Ramadi city center for the academic year (2021/2022), who numbered (3017) female teachers, distributed among (154) schools. The researcher randomly chose a sample of (400) female teachers. Building a scale (Anger Management) according to Novaco’s theory, consisting of (43) items distributed on three dimensions: the cognitive dimension (20) items, the physiological dimension (12) items, and the behavioral dimension (11) items. The answer alternatives were (It applies to me to a large degree, applies to me to a moderate degree, applies to me to a small degree, does not apply to me at all). In the total score of the scale, and its relationship to the dimension to which it belongs, also verified the stability of the scale by re-testing and using the alpha-Cronbach equation.
Using the appropriate statistical means, the research reached the following results: The high level of anger management among primary school teachers, and there are differences in the level of anger management among female teachers according to the variables (years of experience, age, and marital status), and in favor of female teachers who have years of experience (11 years). year and above), followed by (6-10 years), then (1-5 years), and for the age variable, the female teachers aged (50-54 years) had a high level of anger management compared to female teachers aged (45-49 years). ), (40-44 years), (55 and over), (35-39 years), (30-34 years), (25-29 years), and (20-24 years) respectively. And the (married) female teachers were higher in the level of anger management than the (single), then (separated), and (widowed), respectively.

Productive thinking among fourth-grade students in mathematics

Haider A. Al-Zuhairy; Elaf G. Khaleel

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4330-4358
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176883

The aim of the research is to identify (productive thinking among fourth-grade students in mathematics); The research sample consisted of (333) male and female students from the fourth scientific students in the middle and secondary schools of the General Directorate of Anbar Education in the city of Ramadi, the governorate center, of whom (153) male and (180) female students, the researcher prepared a test of productive thinking in mathematics from ( 34) paragraphs, including (9) essay paragraphs representing creative thinking skills (fluency, originality, flexibility), and (25) objective paragraphs representing critical thinking skills (interpretation, imposing assumptions, evaluating arguments, deduction, conclusion), and verified its characteristics. Psychometrics, and after applying the test to the sample, the results showed: that the level of productive thinking among students of the fourth scientific in mathematics is weak, and there are statistically significant differences between the mean scores of students in the productive thinking test in mathematics in the gender variable (males, females) in favor of male students.

The Attitudes of Non specialist EFL post-graduate Iraqi students about Edmodo and their utilizing for learning the English language

Zeena Abid Ali Albayati

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4358-4393
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176884

      This study was purposed at investigate the attitudes of Iraqi non specialist EFL post-graduate students about Edmodo and their utilizing for learning the English language. The second objective was to investigate the influence of gender (male and female) and major (scientific and humanitarian departments) of non-specialist EFL post-graduate students on utilizing Edmodo as an implement of learning language. During the academic year 2020–2021, (80) non specialist EFL post-graduate students from the College of Education at Al-Mustansirya University in Iraq participated in this study. This educational tool was applied in Iraq at the time of (Covid-19) to all Iraqi universities in the post-graduate stage. Data were gathered through a questionnaire, and analysis of the results indicated favorable attitudes toward utilizing Edmodo as an implement of learning English language. The results of this study showed that the Behavioral Engagement (BE for short) (M= 4.22), Developing Language Skills (DLS for short) (M= 4.11), and Learning Linguistics with Edmodo Technology (LLET for short) (M= 3.84) had the highest mean averages among the five attitude scale components. Finally , the Linguistics Confidence (LC for short)  (M= 3.84) and Edmodo Technology Confidence (ETC for short) (M= 3.78) were calculated. According to the findings of this study, there was a statistically significant difference between the mean of the humanitarian departments and scientific departments of non-specialist EFL post-graduate students' attitudes toward utilizing Edmodo as an implement of learning English language. Likewise, there was no statistically significant difference in the attitudes of male and female students which utilizing Edmodo as an implement of learning English language. This study concludes with some pedagogical implications and and future research studies

The Attitudes of Male and Female Teachers Towards Using the Madrasati Platform During the Corona Pandemic

Ayed M. Al Ghamdi; Majed Sh. Al. Ghamdi; Mohammed A. Al. Ghamdi; Hamdan M. Al. Zahrani

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4394-4425
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176885

The study aimed to know the attitudes of male and female teachers in Al-Baha region towards using the Madrasati platform during the Corona pandemic, and it also aimed to test the extent to which there are statistically significant differences between the responses of the study sample due to the variables of gender, academic qualification and teaching stage. The study used the descriptive approach; An electronic questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of (141) male and female teachers, with (44) male and female teachers (97) from all levels of public education. The results of the study revealed that there are significantly positive attitudes among male and female teachers towards using the Madrasati platform. The results also revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the attitudes towards using the Madrasati platform due to gender, in favor of the female teachers. In addition, there were statistically significant differences in the attitudes towards using the Madrasati platform due to the academic qualification in favor of the bachelor’s qualification, while the results showed that there are no statistically significant differences in the attitudes towards the use of the Madrasati platform due to the teaching stage.

The Effect of CoRT Programme with EFL Preparatory School Students' in Writing

Dunia T. Hameed; Zeyad T. A

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4426-4446
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176886

The CoRT programme is a series of thinking tools that aid in the development and maintenance of mental ability, which is necessary for learning various parts of the cognitive process. Writing is a crucial ability for expressing thoughts, feelings, and expressions. Writing proficiency in second language teaching is important because it allows the writer to generate, analyze, and communicate a variety of messages to readers, allowing the writer to have a positive connection with society. Composition writing improves students' ability to create an expressive text using their own words or inventing new ones by exposing them to a variety of topics. In order to develop successful outputs based on the quality of instructions, the thinking process requires creative skills.
The problem explored in this study is students' low proficiency in English composition writing. The incapacity to develop their creative and critical thinking in composition writing could be one of the explanations. As a result, new cognitive thinking strategies, programmes, and procedures must be implemented in practical sessions when teaching composition writing.
This study aims at:
1- Finding out if there is any significant difference between the experimental group's achievement at the recognition and the production levels in the posttest.
2- Finding out if there is any significant difference between the experimental group's achievement in pre and posttest.
It is hypothesized that:
1- There are statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group's achievement at the recognition and the production levels in the posttest.
2- There are statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group's achievement in the pre and posttest

The effectiveness of e-learning in light of the spread of the Corona virus from the point of view of Arabic language teachers in the schools of the city center of Ramadi

Sakin Awad Jassim

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4447-4477
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.176887

This study aimed to reveal the effectiveness of e-learning in light of the spread of the Corona virus from the viewpoint of Arabic language teachers in the schools of the city center of Ramadi. Ramadi who taught during the period of the spread of the Corona virus through the e-learning system, and the necessary data were collected using a questionnaire whose reliability coefficient reached (0.804) and was applied to the study sample. The results of the study revealed that the study sample evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning in light of 
The spread of the Corona virus, from their point of view, was average, and their evaluation of the field of e-learning continuity, the field of obstacles to the use of e-learning, the field of interaction of Arabic language faculty members with e-learning, and the field of students’ interaction in the use of e-learning was average, and the researchers recommended holding training courses in the field of e-learning for each From Arabic language teachers and students, and help in getting rid of all obstacles that prevent benefiting from the followed e-learning system, and the necessity of pairing in-person education and e-learning in educational institutions in the future

Reasons For The Aabuses And Their Implications

احمد حسن عواد الفهداوی; لطیف حسن عبدالله

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2016, Volume 2016, Issue 1, Pages 185-209

The design basis for the city as a Constitution that regulates land use determines the morphological features, and therefore any change in the type and proportion of land uses no means commensurate with the flexibility of design basis would have a negative impact on the urban environment and the inhabitants of the city.
The research sheds light on the causes of abuse on the land and property of the State and its consequences, was to take the city saw him model for study as experiencing high numbers of abuses both within the design basis or on the urban city especially after 2003 because of deteriorating security that hit Iraq in General and the city saw him in particular, and the study of laws and regulations which had the effect of leading the growing phenomenon of abuse.
Produced a field study (2691) case of exceeding them (1026) if the construction of urban housing units non-fundamentalist within and outside of the basic design, and research with a number of conclusions and recommendations by researchers to reduce growth and address the phenomenon of abuse.

العوامل المؤثرة سلباً على حرکة السلع والبضائع خلال العصر العباسی

عبد الباسط مصطفى مجید الرفاعی

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2015, Volume 2015, Issue 1, Pages 98-113

ان عدم وجود الاخطار الطبیعیة مع وجود الاستقرار الامنی والسیاسی سیکون کل ذلک الاثر الایجابی على حیاة الامم والشعوب فی جمیع جوانب الحیاة سیما منها النشاط التجاری، وهذا ما هو واضح فی تاریخ المسلمین وبخاصة فی العصر العباسی.کانت التجارة فی الدولة الاسلامیة على عهد العباسیین قد ازدهرت داخلیاً وخارجیاً، الا ان هناک کانت اخطار کثیرة تهدد حرکة السلع والبضائع وتعکر صفو جو الیتها، هذه الاخطار کانت من الاسباب المباشرة سلباً على هذه الحرکة.اما العوامل البشریة المتمثلة؛ باللصوص، والقراصنة، تعد من الافعال المقصودة غایتها اغتصاب اموال التجارة مما یعنی تعطیل هذا النشاط وشل حرکته. وفی نفس السیاق لم تکن الاخطار الطبیعیة المتمثلة؛ بالاعاصیر والظروف المناخیة الصعبة، ووعورة الطرق، باقل سلبیة عن العوامل البشریة السالفة الذکر. ولضمان نجاح وسلاة حرکة انتقال السلع والبضائع فلا بد من وضع الحلول الناجحة، مثلما فعل الخلیفة العباسی المطیع بالله (332 هـ / 944 م 363 هـ / 973 م) اذ أمن طرق التجارة من اخطار اللصوص، وکما فعل ایضاً غیره من الخلفاء حین قاموا بتقویة الاسطول البحری لحمایة السفن التجاریة من خطر القراصنة.
 
 
 

استعانة القوى الإسلامیة بالممالک الاسبانیة فی الأندلس فی عصر الفتنة (399-422ﻫ)

بدیع محمد إبراهیم; إسماعیل مجبل حمد

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2014, Volume 2014, Issue 2, Pages 50-71

The pages of this search to highlight on the policy phenomenon that effect on Islamic –Arab presence in Andalusia which is dependency of Islamic leaders by Spanish Kingdom against their them at period of a large sedition this article is divided into four axis, first one deal with the beginning of sedition and the second axis took about the fight between ALmadi and ALmustaeenand their dependent on Spanish and the third axis to take the coming back of hisham ALmo’aed to ALkelafa and the fourth and last axis deal with coming back of sulyman to ALkelafa for second time and get help from Spanish kingdom.

دور المعلم فی تنمیة التفکیر الإبداعی لدى الطلبة

محمد شکر محمود

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2013, Volume 2013, Issue 2, Pages 468-490

The role of teacher on developing creative thinking
The teachers play a vital role on increasing thinking , jerwan(1999) says that the creative student are national wealth to which should society give a great concern and neglecting them is a big loosing. so that the problem study was defined in arousing the following question :
(What are the role of teacher on growing creative thinking for students ?)
From this question branches the following main axels:
- Meaning of creative thinking.
- Educational aims of creative thinking.
- Rationalization of qualifying teacher to play this role.
- Interest to developing creative thinking.
- Elements of successing operation of creative thinking.
- Conclusion and recommendation

Mus Ottoman when combined in Andalusia.

Adnan Khalaf Khadem

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2012, Volume 2012, Issue 3, Pages 0-0

Mus Quran is the book of God home to the Holy Props Miracle et and Prophet (Allah bless him and his family) and The Constitution of the Muslims and the basis of Islamic law, which does not accept uncertainty and difference 'has found considerable interest by Muslims throughout the ages starting from the era of the Prophet (Allah bless him and God him) 'to maintain it and publish a copy on the Muslims that they may grow educated and this is what was keen upon Arab countries Islamic as start copying the Koran at the beginning of the emergence of the first Arab country Islamic after the Holy Prophet (Allah bless him and his family) and specifically in the era of the Caliphs (God bless them ) and then took successive state role in this regard to witness our Constitution Sharif unrivaled attention in various parts of the Arab Islamic states
As this research highlights on the part of Arab states Islamic, a state monotheists in Andalusia, which increased from attention and interest Koran Sharif as well as the presence of the original and moving to the city to the other even became possession to preserve it is not a munitions rare immortalized Muslims over Ages So naturally be to copy the Koran special attention to their intake we discussed this. Department search two requirements addressing the first requirement definition and draw the Koran as well as copies of the Koran and promising this transcription as well as the reasons that called on Muslims to copy 'requirement
has been allocated to the State's interest Unitarian Koran Sharif and how binding. and where arrived as the original, which reached them' to conclude seal House most important conclusion reached by the search and margins and a list of sources and references t hat were relied upon in this research

الظروف المناخیة وأثرها فی التوزیع الجغرافی للعواصف الترابیةدراسة تطبیقیة على محافظة الانبار

فراس فاضل مهدی البیاتی

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2011, Volume 2011, Issue 1, Pages 1-26

tract Due to the increase in the activity and repetition of dust storms in Anbar province and middle, south area of Iraq , this study aims at analyzing this phenomena climatologically for the years (1981 – 2006 ) which included five climate stations according to available statistic, these stations are Al-Qaim, Anaa , Ramadi, Al-Nukhaib and Rutba.The main aim of this study is to clarify the geographic distribution of the storms and the climate factors that affect this distribution. This study depended on some elements in treating its statistics, element like : simple correlation coefficient and simple liner Regression to show the direction of the relation and its strength between the studied phenomena and the independent variables in this phenomena. This study reached certain conclusions, the most important of which are : 1. Al-Nukhaib station recorded a higher total of dust storms recurring with an annuel average total of (7-8) day, while Al-Qaim recorded the lowest average of this phenomena with (2-8) dust storms. The spring recorded the highest in the recurrence of this phenomena 2. This study showed the influence of eleven factors in recurrence of this phenomena , the effect of the relative humidity was the highest rate of explanation with 83 % and very higher opposite correlation Index of 91 % and Te-Test degree of 95%, but the Eviapreation and quantity clouds explanation lowest rates from occurrence phenomeno

النظریات العلمیة فی تفسیر الظاهرة الاجرامیة

زیاد ناظم جاسم

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2008, Volume 2008, Issue 14, Pages 349-356

لم تکن دراسة أسباب السلوک الإجرامی حدیثة العهد بل إن رجال العلم والفکر اهتموا بدراسة هذه الأسباب منذ زمن بعید إلا ان هذه الدراسة لم تتبلور بالطابع العلمی إلا فی القرن الثامن عشر فقد کان الاعتقاد السائد قدیماً لدى البشر أن مرتکب الجریمة یتصف بنفس منحرفة نتیجة عیوب خُلُقیة وجسمیة، أما فی القرون الوسطى فقد ساد الاعتقاد بأن الجریمة هو وجود أرواح شریرة تتقمص وتتلبس الانسان فتدفعه الى الجریمة لتتحول هذه النظرة وتتطور على أنها قدر محتوم لا یستطیع الفرد ان یفر منه وبذلک لا مجال لتلمس أسباب الجریمة فی المجتمع أو حتى فی الفرد نفسه (المجرم) إلا أنه مع تقدم الفکر الفلسفی وتطوره اخذ البحث عن أسباب الجریمة بعداً آخر استمر حتى العصور الحدیثة، فقد ظهرت دراسات متفرقة للبحث عن أسباب الجریمة لکنها کانت تفتقر إلى الطابع العلمی إلا أنه مع ظهور الثورة الفکریة العلمیة والحضاریة بدأ البحث والاهتمام بدراسة السلوک الإجرامی أسلوباً علمیاً تجریبیاً فقد بدأ اهتمام الفلاسفة وعلماء الاجتماع والنفس والقانون بدراسة الظاهرة الإجرامیة وتحلیلها مما أدى بالتالی الى نشوء علم مستقل هو علم الإجرام الذی تفرع بدوره إلى ثلاثة فروع علمیة تدرس الظاهرة الإجرامیة هی:1- علم الأنثروبولوجیا الجنائیة والذی یُعنى بدراسة المظاهر العضویة والنفسیة للإنسان المجرم.2- علم النفس الجنائی، وهو الذی یدرس الأحوال النفسیة للمجرمین کمستوى ذکائهم وانفعالاتهم لغرض تحدید العوامل النفسیة التی یعزى إلیها سبب حدوث الجریمة، الأمر الذی دعا بعض الفقهاء إلى القول بأن هذا العلم هو جزء من العلم الأول (الأنثروبولوجیا الجنائیة) .3- علم الاجتماع الجنائی وهو العلم الذی یتولى دراسة الجریمة باعتبارها ظاهرة اجتماعیة أو کما عرفه الأستاذ فیری بأنه حالة الجریمة وحالة الدفاع الاجتماعی ضدها .کما اهتم العلماء فی مختلف الاختصاصات العلمیة بایجاد الوسائل العلمیة والتکنلوجیا اللازمة لرصد الجریمة وتتبع آثارها وصولاً إلى الکشف عنها.لهذا نجد تعدد النظریات التی طُرحت بشأن تفسیر الظاهرة الإجرامیة فهی ظاهرة فردیة وظاهرة اجتماعیة فی وقت واحد والحقیقة ان للظاهرة الإجرامیة وجهین وجهاً اجتماعیاً تبدو فیه الجریمة ظاهرة اجتماعیة ووجهاً فردیاً تبدو فیه الجریمة ظاهرة فردیة تتمثل بالإنسان المجرم وعلیه وسوف نبحث أهم النظریات العلمیة فی تفسیر الظاهرة الإجرامیة وذلک ضمن ثلاثة مباحث.خصص المبحث الأول لتفسیر الجریمة على أنها ظاهرة فردیة تتخذ طابعاً بیولوجیاً و نفسیاً والمبحث الثانی یفسر الجریمة على أنها ظاهرة اجتماعیة تبحث فی الوسط الاجتماعی للمجرم (البیئة الاجتماعیة).أما المبحث الثالث فقد تناولنا فیه أهم النظریات التی اعتمدت على شخصیة المجرم کوحدة واحدة تعتمد على مقومات بیولوجیة واجتماعیة ونفسیة (التفسیر التکاملی للظاهرة الإجرامیة).

Reasons For The Aabuses And Their Implications

احمد حسن عواد الفهداوی; لطیف حسن عبدالله

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2016, Volume 2016, Issue 1, Pages 185-209

The design basis for the city as a Constitution that regulates land use determines the morphological features, and therefore any change in the type and proportion of land uses no means commensurate with the flexibility of design basis would have a negative impact on the urban environment and the inhabitants of the city.
The research sheds light on the causes of abuse on the land and property of the State and its consequences, was to take the city saw him model for study as experiencing high numbers of abuses both within the design basis or on the urban city especially after 2003 because of deteriorating security that hit Iraq in General and the city saw him in particular, and the study of laws and regulations which had the effect of leading the growing phenomenon of abuse.
Produced a field study (2691) case of exceeding them (1026) if the construction of urban housing units non-fundamentalist within and outside of the basic design, and research with a number of conclusions and recommendations by researchers to reduce growth and address the phenomenon of abuse.

العوامل المؤثرة سلباً على حرکة السلع والبضائع خلال العصر العباسی

عبد الباسط مصطفى مجید الرفاعی

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2015, Volume 2015, Issue 1, Pages 98-113

ان عدم وجود الاخطار الطبیعیة مع وجود الاستقرار الامنی والسیاسی سیکون کل ذلک الاثر الایجابی على حیاة الامم والشعوب فی جمیع جوانب الحیاة سیما منها النشاط التجاری، وهذا ما هو واضح فی تاریخ المسلمین وبخاصة فی العصر العباسی.کانت التجارة فی الدولة الاسلامیة على عهد العباسیین قد ازدهرت داخلیاً وخارجیاً، الا ان هناک کانت اخطار کثیرة تهدد حرکة السلع والبضائع وتعکر صفو جو الیتها، هذه الاخطار کانت من الاسباب المباشرة سلباً على هذه الحرکة.اما العوامل البشریة المتمثلة؛ باللصوص، والقراصنة، تعد من الافعال المقصودة غایتها اغتصاب اموال التجارة مما یعنی تعطیل هذا النشاط وشل حرکته. وفی نفس السیاق لم تکن الاخطار الطبیعیة المتمثلة؛ بالاعاصیر والظروف المناخیة الصعبة، ووعورة الطرق، باقل سلبیة عن العوامل البشریة السالفة الذکر. ولضمان نجاح وسلاة حرکة انتقال السلع والبضائع فلا بد من وضع الحلول الناجحة، مثلما فعل الخلیفة العباسی المطیع بالله (332 هـ / 944 م 363 هـ / 973 م) اذ أمن طرق التجارة من اخطار اللصوص، وکما فعل ایضاً غیره من الخلفاء حین قاموا بتقویة الاسطول البحری لحمایة السفن التجاریة من خطر القراصنة.
 
 
 

المقاصة الضریبیة ومدى تطبیقها فی التشریع الضریبی العراقی(دراسة قانونیة مقارنة)

معتز علی صبار

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2009, Volume 2009, Issue 2, Pages 279-287

المقاصة هی احدى طرق انقضاء الالتزام المعروفة فی اطار علاقات اشخاص القانون الخاص، حیث درجت التشریعات المدنیة على تنظیم أحکامها وتأکید کونها واحدة من طرق انقضاء الالتزام بما یعادل الوفاء، وقد بین شراح القانون المدنی أحکامها والآثار التی تترتب علیها.واذا ما اردنا الحدیث عن المقاصة فی اطار علاقات القانون الضریبی نجدها تتمیز بطابع خاص یمیزها عما هو علیه فی ظل القواعد العامة للقانون المدنی، وذلک لما یتمیز به هذا القانون عن غیره من القوانین کونه ینظم علاقة قانونیة تدخل الدولة طرفا ایجابیا فیها باعتبارها صاحبة السیادة، علاوة على مایتمیز به دین الضریبة من سمات تخرجه عن دائرة الدیون المدنیة.الا ان صمت المشرع الضریبی عن تحدید الاحکام التی تنظم المقاصة الضریبیة وبیان القواعد الواجبة التطبیق فی هذا الخصوص قد حدى بالفقه والقضاء والادارة الضریبیة الى سلوک اتجاهات مختلفة بشأن مدى جواز تطبیق المقاصة لانهاء علاقة المدیونیة فی اطار القانون الضریبی وذلک تبعا لنظرة کل منهم الى طبیعة دین الضریبة واستقلالیة القانون الضریبی، على هذا وقع الاختیار على هذا الموضوع لبحثه والوقوف على مدى جواز المقاصة فی الدیون الضریبیة واحکام هذه المقاصة ومدى انسجامها مع القواعد العامة للمقاصة فی القانون المدنی، وذلک وفق خطة التزمت فیها ظوابط النشر فتناولت الموضوع من ثلاث محاور وعلى ثلاث مباحث نبین فی الاول منها مفهوم المقاصة الضریبیة وفی المبحث الثانی نناقش مدى صلاحیتها للتطبیق فی میدان العلاقات الضریبیة اما المبحث الثالث فنعقده لبیان الآثار التی تترتب على تطبیق المقاصة ثم ننهی البحث بخاتمة نضمنها بعض النتائج والمقترحات التی خلصنا بها من خلال بحثنا وعلى النحو الاتی:

Publisher: University of Anbar

Email:  juah@uoanbar.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr. Firas Al-Najjar

Print ISSN: 1995-8463

Online ISSN: 2706-6673

DOI

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