The Economic developments in the United States of America 1900-1920
Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities,
2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 3349-3382
AbstractThe U.S. economy has witnessed a clear development since the beginning of the 20th century, as its economy was moving towards outperforming the economies of the major countries at the time, especially Britain, Germany and France, where the United States of America provided its loans to all parties of the war, and those loans were at interest ranged from 5-7 percent, and the economic factor was the reason for the delay in entering World War I, and entered the battles at a time when its economy required to enter the war to end the state of war, and benefit from peace and beyond, The results of the war as a whole declared that the victorious power of World War I was the United States of America, because of the huge revenues it earned for the American economy, and the American economic power seemed superior to the economies of the countries of the world.
After the end of the war, the United States of America participated in the settlements that took place after which it made more wealth than it earned from the war and even obliged the countries of the world to pay their debts to the United States of America, and a number of developments of the war and its settlements in the administration of Woodrow Wilson.
The research section to: Three investigations: the first research addressed the American economy before World War I, and the second research touched on the American economy since 1914 the beginning of World War I, the third research came the development of the American economy from world war until 1920, and concluded the research with a conclusion and list of sources.
Geneva Eve foster, biography of George Washington, translated by Amin Morsi Kandil, Cairo, 1953, pp. 2-10
DiClerico, Robert and hamock, Alan, views on political government, translated by tamadr Tawfik, Dar Al-Maarif, Cairo, D.T., P. 57.
Lerner, Max, America as a civilization (thought and life in the USA) J2, T.Rashed al-Barawi, Cairo, 1966.
Abdul Hussein Abdul Sousa, the principles of the presidents of the United States of America in the twentieth century, doctoral thesis submitted to the University of Anbar, Faculty of Arts, 2016,.
Pirlo Victor, the mayor of American colonialism, translated by Khair Baalbaki, Dar Al-Alam for millions Beirut, 1995,.
)) .Youssef Abdel-Magied and Mohamed Sabry Mahsoub, "geography of the two Americas", Cairo, 1982, p.77.
Nawar, Abdel Aziz Suleiman and others: the history of the United States of America, from the sixteenth to the twentieth century, Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi, Cairo, 1999.P127.
Herbert Agar, The United States, the President, The Parties and the Constitution, (London-1959), pp. 650-657.
() Thomas .A. a . Bryson, U.S. diplomatic relations with the Middle East, Baghdad translated by the Center for research and information, volume I 1986, p .120.
Al-Obaidi said Ali, economics of Public Finance, 1st floor, Dar Dijla publishing and distribution, Amman, 2011, pp. 132-137
)) R.A. Musgrave, Fiscal system, Newhave and London, Yale University press, 1969, P.141
( ) R.A. Musgrave, Fiscal system, Newhave and London, Yale University press, 1969, P.141.
Geraldum bomber, concepts of political parties for American democracy, emotions and interests, translated by Mohammed al-Najjar, reviewed by Faisal Al-Rifa', Beirut, 1999.
Younes Ahmed Al-batreq and Hamed Abdel-Majid Daraz, tax systems, Cairo, Al-Ahram Center,1983,.
Omar Abdel Aziz, "modern European and American history", Alexandria,1992
Noureddine Hatoum, "the history of the nineteenth century in Europe and the World", Part II, Beirut, 1995, p.136 -.
Omar Abdel Aziz, "modern European and American history", Alexandria, 1992, pp. 387-388.
( ) Ward R. Larry , The Climate of the U.S.A. , New York , 1922 , PP. 31-32 .
(1) Jean-Pierre Rieu, the Industrial Revolution (1780-1880), t. Ibrahim Khoury, d.M), Damascus, 1975.
Abdelaziz Suleiman Nowar and Abdelmajid nannai, the modern history of the United States of America, Beirut, 1973.
Douglas S. K.Stevenson, "American life and institutions", translated by Amal said, Z1, Jordan, 2001,.
Salim Tawfiq Al-Najafi, implications of the new capitalist economic system, Journal of Economic Studies, No. 3-4, 1999, House of wisdom, Baghdad, 2000.
Georges louverain , the trade union movement in the world, translated by Mahat Faraj Al-Khoury, reviewed by Antoine Homsi, Damascus, 1967.
Samuel Eliot Morison, The Oxford History of The American People, New York, 1965, , P. 921.
Kyosanon and Alexander Vladimir Fitch, USA and Western Europe, translated by Gabriel Fayyad, Beirut, Lebanon, 1974
Hans Morgenthau, politics between nations, the struggle for power and peace, taar, Khairy Hammad, Beirut, National House for printing and publishing, 1965 ،
Peter, N. Carroll and David W. Noble. (1985). The Free and the Unfree A New History of the United States. London: Penguin Books.
Buchan , John , A History of The Great War , Vol . 11 , London , 1922 , PP..
Marshal , Thomas , M . , American History , New York , 1930 , PP . 577 –
Al-Fatlawi, Hassan Ali Sabti, the position of the United States of America on the first World War and its consequences, Baghdad, 2002, p. 65 ؛
Millis , Walter , Road to War , American , 1914 – 1917 , Boston , Houghton Mifflim , 1933 , P . 46 ; Moon , Parke Tomas , Imperialism and World Politics , New York , 1930 , P . 133 .
Pierre Novin, history of the twentieth century, translated by Noureddine Hatoum, Dar Al-Fikr, B.M,P. 76.
( ) Demengeon Albert,le deel de IEurope,paris,1920,op.12.
Awni Abdulrahman Al-Sabawi, modern and contemporary American history, Jordan, DT, pp. 208-210.
Abdelaziz Suleiman Nowar and Abdelmajid Menai, the modern history of the United States of America, Beirut, 1973,.
Kamal Mazhar Ahmed, spotlight on international issues in the Middle East, publications of the Ministry of culture and arts, Baghdad, 1978،
() M.De Flor et al., media theories, translated by Mohammed Naji Al-Jawhar, Amman, 1994,.
( ) Seymour Harris, American Economic history, Mggraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1961,p.52.
Atef Wasfi, cultural anthropology (with a field study of the Lebanese Muslim community in the American city of Dearborn), Dar Al – Nahda Al-Arabiya for printing and publishing, Lebanon-Beirut, 1971, P.320.
( ) Anan Amer, Yvonne Lockwood, Arab Americans in Metro Detroit, brition, 2000, p47,
Oddwater, the presidents of the United States of America from 1789 to today, Dar Al-Hikma, London, 2006, p. 48؛
Encyclopedia Americana, The International Reference Work, American Corporation, Vol. 29, New York, 1962, p. 6-12.
Karl Heintz Deschner, Moloch: the God of evil (a history of the United States of America), translated by Muhammad Jadid, al-Quds publishing and distribution, Damascus, Vol.1, 2003, p. 300.
Hussein Fawzi al-Najjar, Hussein Fawzi al-Najjar, America and the world, Cairo, Madbouly library, 1987, p.196.
( )Seth P.Tillman, Anglo – American Relations at the peace conference of 1919, New Jersey ,1961,p.268.
( )Walter Consuelo Langsam, The world since 1919, New York, 1940, p. 277; A.J.P. Taylor , English History 1914-1945 , Oxford , 1965 , p. 123 .
( )Henry Pelling , Modern Britain 1885-1955, London , 1960 , p. 91 .
( )L.C.B. Seaman , Post – Victorian Britain 1902-1951, London , 1966, p. 190.
Sivachyov, ,N.and Yazkov,E.,History of USA since World War,Moscow,1976,pp11-12.
( ) Royers , Lindsay , American Government and Politics , Americin Political Review , Vol . 13 . No . 2 . August , 1920 , P . 33
; Richard Smoke , War Controlling Escalation , Harvard University Press , 1977 , P . 53
W. N. Medlicott , British Foreign Policy Since Versailles , 1919 – 1963 , Second Edition , London , 1963 , P . 33 .
Al-Najjar, Mustafa Hussein, America and the world (a study in international politics), Atlas publications, Cairo, Dr.T.
Charles. W. Eliot, American Historical Documents, 1000 – 1904, (New York, 1963), pp. 277 – 279;
Nouri al-Samarrai , "the Monroe Doctrine and the truth of its goals", Arab historian, No. 24, year 14, 1989,.
Kamal Mazhar Ahmad, about the American penetration in the Middle East, Afaq magazine (Baghdad : Dar Al-Awsat Al-Kultury Al-Gaal, No. 3, November 1976), p.114.
Louis Schneider,the scientist in the twentieth century, translated by Sayyid Abboud al-Samarrai, library of life, Beirut, 1960, p.85.
( ) Royers , Lindsay , American Government and Politics , Americin Political Review , Vol . 13 . No . 2 . August , 1920 , P . 33 ; Richard Smoke , War Controlling Escalation , Harvard University Press , 1977 , P . 53 ; W . N. Medlicott , Op. Cit, P . 33 .
( )Revue Relations Internationales, 1976, NO.8 (La Position Financierc et Economi Que De L′ Europe Au Lendmain De La Premiers Guerre Mondiale. Par Henir Morsel), pp.313.314.
( )Faulkner, Harold Underwood, American Economic History, Harper and Row Company, New York, 1960., P. 598 .
( ) Faulkner OP , Cit. , 596 ; H . B Parkes , op. Cit. , P . 577 ; Dulles , Foster , Americans Rise to World Power 1898 – 1954 , New York , 1963 , P . 130 .
( ) F . R. U. S. The Secretary of State to the Special Representative ( House ) Washington , November , 8 , 1919 , Vol .3 . PP . 617 – 618 , J . M. Keynes , The Economic Consequences of the Peace , 1919 , London , Oxford , 1950 , P . 35 ; Julius W . Pratt , OP . cit . , P . 315 .
Herbert Fischer, the history of Europe in the modern era, translated by: Ahmed Naguib Hashem and Wadi al-Dabaa, Dar Al-Maarif, Egypt, 1984
Paul zukk, economic development and international trade, TR, Omar Kabbani, Cairo, Dar Karnak, 1963 ،
Wassily W . Leontief , The Structure Of American Economy , 1919 – 1939 , Second Edition , New York , Oxford University Press , 1966 , P. 158
Alan Palmer , D ictionary of Twentieth Century History 1900, , P . 116 – 1982 , Second Edition , London ,1984 ,
( )Robert D . Patton , The American Economy , United States , 1953 , P . 202.
( )Wassily , OP . cit. , P. 177 ; Peter Carroll , OP. Cit. , P. 321 .
( )Werner J . feld , Comparative Regional Systems West and East Europe North America , the Middle East and Developing Countries , London , 1970 , PP . 67 – 68 .
( ) Ferrell , Robert , OP . Cit. , P . 285; Rubin, Burry, Secrets of State , The State Department And The Strggle Over U. S. Foreign Policy , Oxford University Press , 1985 , P. 121 .; Thomas M. , Edward Weisband , Foreign Policy by Congress ,New York , 1977 , PP . 64- 66 .
Pierre Georges, The Great markets of the world, TR, Mona Ibrahim Hanafi, Mr, Jalal Hassan Sadek, series we have chosen for you, D. V), pp. 22-23 .
Abdel Wahab Al-Kayali and others, political encyclopedia, Arab Foundation for studies and publishing, Beirut, Vol .1, 1979, p. 422.
( )Herbert , Peacock , L . , Europe and Beyond . 1870 – 1976 , Second Edition , London , Heinemann Educational Books , PP . 211 – 212 .
Muhammad Ibrahim Ali, American-Japanese relations, unpublished master's thesis submitted to the Council of the Faculty of Political Science, University of Baghdad, 1989,.
Mohamed Labib Choucair, international economic relations, Cairo, Dar Al-Nahda Al-Arabiya , 1961
( ) Herbert , Peacock , OP . cit ,, PP . 215 – 216 ; Abrief Revlew , Soviet Foreign Policy , tr. , Vlc , Schneie Rson , Soviet Socialist Republics , 1967 , P . 22 .
( )Wolfson Robert , OP . cit. , , PP . 226 – 272 ; Samuel Eliot , Op . Cit . , P . 9.3 ; Julius Pratt , Op . Cit . , P . 321 .
( )A .Toynbee , Survey of International Affairs 1920 – 1923 , London , Oxford , 1962 , P . 225 ; Samuel Eliot , Op . Cit . , P . 9.3 ; Julius Pratt , Op . Cit . , P . 321.
( )Ibid , P . 226 ; Carr, E . H. International Relation Between The Two World Wars 1919 – 1934 , New York , Macmillan , 1967 , P 101 .
() A . C . Taylor, the origins of the Second World War, TR, Mustafa Kamal Khamis, Mr, Mohamed Anis, Cairo, Egyptian General Authority, 1971
Kazim Hashim Nima, brief on the history of International Relations, University of Baghdad, Faculty of political science, 1992.
( ) J. M. Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace , 1919 , London , 1950 , P35 ; Alfred Cobban , A history of Modern France , 1871 – 1962 , London 1965 ,P.65 ;
Victor Pirlo and Albert A.Cannes, the pillars of American colonialism and the death of democracy in the New World, Translation, Mounir Baalbaki, Beirut, 1980, p. 24- 25 30،27،30- 31.
( ) Samuel Eliot , OP. Cit. , P. 915 ; Peter . Carroll , OP. Cit. , P. 318
- Article View: 1
- PDF Download: 2