Volume 2021, Issue 1, Winter 2021


The change of the Explaitation of the cultivated land in AL-anbar Province between 2000 – 2012

کمال صالح کزکوز العانی; قاسم عبید فاضل جاسم الجمیلی

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 374-402

The stady aims at Finding out the chingements in the exploitatinn of the calitvated land in AL-Anbar province between (2000-2012) the field wark represents an important part fram Iraq. The collected data in claded both the natural ane the opulogical sid. the field wark lies in the western part of Iraq measuving (183288) squer K.M.S, which is awonthy studied part to due to its production. the change in the exploitation of the cultivated land between (2000-2012) to encircle the change of the exploitation of the cultivat land for plant and animal production and make a camparasion between (2000-2006) and (2006-2012) so as to find out the change an the exploitation of the cultivated land by analyzing the data in the compared years and the base. the analysis provel that there are positiye and negative change in all the monacipals of the government. the comparalive year, (2006) witnessed a negative change due to the bad conditions of the coamtry cased by the American auupation. the study idendified the problems that faced the exploitation of the caltivated land.

The Economic and Cultural Relations between United States and Iraq 1958-1968

Jamal H.Dhuwaib; Salem I. Mustafa

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 1-25

On July 14, 1958, Abdul Karim Qassem succeeded in overthrowing the Iraqi regime and its declaration of the Iraqi Republic. This was a shock to the United States of America and its intelligence service (CIA). This is what made it work to create a new type of dealing with the new system in Iraq after Iraq announced a new foreign policy towards the United States of America, but that did not prevent the continuation of economic and cultural exchanges between them, especially with the presence of oil, and this is what made the United States of America strengthen its relations Commercial and building several cultural centers in Iraq linked to its intelligence service (CIA) and this research is a summary of the US-Iraqi economic and cultural relations from 1958-1968

The United States' Attitude on the guerrilla war in Guatemala, 1963-1966

Mohammed Y.Ahmed; Amal O.Khamis

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 26-45

Guerrilla activity appeared clearly in Guatemala after the Guatemalan government allowed the CIA to establish training bases for Cuban exiles to invade Cuba in 1960 and get rid of the communist government of Fidel Castro, which prompted Guatemalan officers 26to reject this matter, which prompted them to launch a rebellion against the Guatemalan government in 1960, but the Guatemalan government was able Repelling the rebellion with the help of the United States of America, the rebels resumed their activities using the method of guerrilla warfare through hit-and-run operations, and the guerrilla activities led to the concern of the Guatemalan government and the American administration, so the latter took during the year 1965 to develop plans to eliminate the guerrilla war and to provide military aid because the situation was disturbed. Security affects its political interests due to its fear of the penetration of communism and the economy represented by the numerous investments exploited in Guatemala

Jan Bardi Al-Ghazali and his relationship with the Arab tribes in the Niyabah Damascus (Al-Shām), Ottoman kingdom) 922 – 926 AH / 1516 – 1520 CE

Othman I. A; Zuhair G. A

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 46-68

This research examine the relationship between the deputy of Bilād Al-Shām (The Levant or Historical Syria) Jan Baradi Al-Ghazali with the Arab tribes in NiyabahDamascus (Al-Shām) , Ottoman kingdom), after he a pointed as a deputy at the beginning of the Ottoman era, particularly his relation with Bnu Lam (Tribe of Lalm), and his military campaigns against them because of they attacked the the Hajj (pilgrimage) convoy of Bilād Al-Shām. The research also examine ) Jan Baradi Al-Ghazali relationship with Al Al-Hansh (Al-Hansh tribe) whom stay upon their loyalty to the Mamluks even after their defeat. It is also examine Jan Baradi Al-Ghazali relationship with the tribes of Palestine whom took different positions from him whether during his deputy on Bilād Al-Shām or after his revolt against the Ottoman Empire

Turkey's policy towards ethnic minorities

Anas Younus Abed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 69-82

The policy of any country towards its minorities reflects the stability and progress of that state. It also reflects the enforced laws on these minorities and the extent to which these rights are fulfilled. This paper examines Turkey's policy towards its ethnic or racial minorities, as this policy differs from that of the others towards religious minorities. This has been evidently clear through Turkish laws and constitutions since the founding of the modern Turkish state until 2002, we will try to answer some questions about this policy and the most important ethnic minorities that existed in Turkish society. Among these questions are: what is the nature of Turkish politics towards minorities? Is there a difference in policy from other religious minorities? What are the most important minorities

The role of the Kurds in Egypt from the Ottoman period to the era of Muhammad Ali Pasha and his successors (1517-1952)

Nibras Khalil Ibrahim

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 83-111

This study deals with the role of the Kurds in Egypt from the Ottoman era until the era of Muhammad Ali Pasha and his successors, as Egypt is the most Arab country that has close ties with the Kurds. During the era of the rule of the Ayyubid state, as thousands of Kurdish families immigrated, spread from southern Egypt to its north, and many of them occupied political and military positions, in addition to the role of Kurdish merchants and their contribution to economic life, and the stability of some of them in it, and the influx of Kurds continued to Egypt throughout the following eras, whether during the days of rule. The Mamelukes or the Ottomans, and the era of the rule of Muhammad Ali and his successors witnessed a remarkable increase in the migration of the Kurds to it, so Kurdish figures emerged in Egypt who enjoyed an important position immigrated to Egypt from the cities of Kurdistan, and over the years they merged with the Egyptian people and cut off their roots with their original homeland, leaving only the name. As they were called (Kurdish) in relation to their original areas of displacement, or some physical features, and from among these many military leaders, administration men, judges, doctors, and professions emerged Descine, writers, poets, jurists, and artists, and they provided services to Egypt and the wheel of the modern renaissance in Egypt revolved at their hands at a time when they did not deny their Kurdish nationalism

Atta Amin and its cultural and political impact in lraq

Anwar Nasser Hassan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 112-127

Atta Amin's character is considered one of the prominent literary figures in Iraq during the twenties of the last century, as his writings were distinguished by the reformist tendency of society and the call for liberation from the outdated traditions prevailing at the time, as well as “the diplomat’s course during his work in the foreign service and his great capabilities in the field of translation and sober writing.He is one of the few Iraqi writers who have written about Iraqi narrative literature and has become a pioneer in it. His thoughts focus on attempts to overcome the difficult circumstances that Iraq faced, especially backwardness, ignorance and deprivation during the British occupation.His work in the diplomatic and foreign affairs field contributed to enhancing his ambitions of building an advanced society that lives economically in political and security stability like any other

Scientific Religious Surnames and their Implications in the Arab Islamic Society

Abdul Sattar M. D; Abdul Karim M. Abed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 128-147

Addressing scientific religious surnames and their implications in the Arab Islamic society is considered an important step that emphasizes the association of the scholar to his community. Through surnames, we were able to know scholars in various fields of specialization, the scientific or the humanitarian, because most of the important scientific figures in the society are known for their surnames as a kind of pride to be affiliated to sciences they excelled in, such as Al-Faqeeh (philologist) and Al-Hafidh (memorizing the Holy Quran) among others. Moreover, they became inseparable from the scholars in accordance to the cultural development of the Arab Islamic society, especially the Abbasid Era (132 AH - 656AD).

The positive effects of the succession policy in the Maghreb from the conquest until the end of the Almohad state

Badei M. I; Mohammed H. Y

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 148-168

This research was devoted to studying the implications of the policy of inclusiveness in the Maghreb from the conquest to the end of the Almohad state. As some of the policies that were adopted behind it were positive with positive effects that were characterized in many aspects, such as the military side that represented in the conquests and expansion of the Arab-Islamic state, and the spread of Islam after the elimination of its enemies, as well as the security and stability that the Moroccan population obtained, whether it was from the Arab tribes Mother of the Arabs of Morocco (Berbers) in the era of some governors, princes and workers.

Pages from the history of the Apostolic State for the period (842 AH to 858 AH) through the Manuscript of the History of the Mukashik (904 AH)

Iftikhar A. Rajab; Nour S. Nasser

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 169-192

The research dealt with the political conditions of Yemen in an important era in the history of the Apostolic State (626 AH - 858 AH), which was marked by the appearance of features of weakness and collapse in which slaves soon dominated the state administration because of the weakness of kings and internal conflicts between its sons. The research began with the death of the apparent Apostolic King (831 AH - 842 AH), and his son, the Honorable King, assumed power until the year 858 AH, which ends with the ouster of the Apostolic King Masoud himself from the king, and Banu Taher assumed rule of the country. The research included two parts, the first study covered the definition of the manuscript, its percentage, the writer's sources, style, and method of investigation. The second section included the investigated text

Al-Maqbari’s Family Narrations in the Social Aspects

Abdul-Jabbar M. S; Omar M. Hameed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 193-215

This research deals with the Al-Muqbari’s family. This family were among the loyal followers who had a great role in the intellectual aspect,. The reason behind that is its members were narrators of the hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the historical events. The members of this family lived an era that extended from Caliph Umar Ibn Al-Khattab’s till the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma`mun’s era. That period was full of events and disturbances. This family restricted its role on the narration of the hadith and the history. The family took the narrations from a group of great scholars. They also had a large number of students who narrated their hadiths and historical narration. Some of the narrations which are Al-Muqbari’s family narrated were ones that revealed the social side. They mentioned narrations about the food, its etiquette and its types. They also had some narrations about the drinks, mattresses and rugs, utensils and tools. They even included the clothes, decorations and tools in their narrations which all of them were among the. things that prevailed in the Islamic society bac then

Economic blockade and social oppression at the beginning of the Islamic call and its impact on the migration of Muslims

Rashid Ahmed Mukhtar

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 216-233

The muslims have been Persecuted by the polytheists who have faced the new religion cruelly, used torching, starving and killing to stop muslims with their religion, so the immigration was the best way to protect muslims,and keep the lack of people who believed from temptation,and congrats them on the subsequent jihad stages.And this research tries to focus on the effects of the blockade in the migration,this research consist of introduction and then reboot of the definition of migration and three researches:The research had some results like:the social persecution and economic blockade that were in the beginning of Quraish’s means to stop islam,and Quraish have practiced the economic boycott to muslim merchants when they stopped dealing with them in addition to starving poor people

Economic activities in the ancient kingdom of Hadhramout

Said Salmin Omar Belafir

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 234-262

Hadramout in the past enjoyed a special place among the kingdoms of southern Arabia and the regions of the ancient Near East through its possession of a number of peculiarities, including the geographical location of global trade and the various natural and climatic conditions, as well as the work of its people in crafts and trade professions that helped the economic prosperity, which thus constituted an important tributary of trade besides What was received by its ports of materials and goods from the regions of the Indian subcontinent, Africa and the Mediterranean basin.The research concluded that the mastery of civilization and their exploitation of natural factors such as water and fertility of the land and the appropriate climate, in addition to the human factors represented in manpower and the existence of a civilized and stable society resulted in a growth in urbanization, sophistication and wealth for the old Hadrami man, so cities and the commercial center and the prosperity of economic activity, diversified industries, and trade grew This led to the growth of its military and economic power, and it played a major role among advanced civilizations

Signs of violence and extremism in the news discourse of the new media about the Events in Syria (An analytical study on Sky News)

Damya Hussein Ghadeyb Murshid Al-Rubaie

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 263-290

This study aims to identify indicators of violence and extremism in the uses of modern electronic media in their dealings with news and reports of sites of violence, war, terrorism and extremism in all forms in the conflicting countries of the world. The study focused on sky news website and return to Sky News and its satellite news channel in its coverage of the aspects of the crisis that is ravaging Syria, which involved a regional conflict involving international poles such as Russia, Turkey and the United States of America as well as armed groups and extremist movements, and the researcher conducted a comprehensive survey of the site for two consecutive months using the descriptive method and the survey method - analytical, and included the research included three chapters of the investigations, the first chapter (systematic framework of research) while the second included the second chapter The third chapter focused on analyzing data on research across major and subgroups and interpreting their results

Intellectual extremism and ways to confront it incontemporary Iraqi society Analytical study from a social perspective

Hamdan Ramadan Mohammed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 291-323

This research aimed to identify the nature of intellectual extremism in our Iraqi society? What are the reasons for its spread at the present time? What are its types? How can we define its manifestations? What are its effects on the reality of Iraqi society, so that we understand its meaning and all of this clearly, this is what we will address in this modest research in some detail.in this research, we have tried to use a combination of approaches to study the concept of intellectual extremism and the developments that have developed for it in order to reach conclusions that contribute to creating a societal immunity from intellectual deviation that may lead to extremism in all its forms and forms, and therefore the research has started from its dependence on the inductive, deductive and deductive approach to stand by description and tracking definitions The components and nature of intellectual extremism and how to deal with it in society

Social cohesion in the Anbar community for the post-displacement period

Baker Khedar Jasim; Hameed Kurdy

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 324-352

This study is one of the descriptive field studies, and aims mainly to identify the nature of social cohesion in the Anbar community after the displacement phase, as well as to highlight the reasons that threaten social cohesion and ways to maintain. The study relied on the social survey methodology by using the questionnaire tool, which was distributed to a sample of (300) male and female respondents, in addition to some interviews with active persons within the community.- The triad of terrorism, corruption and tribal conflicts is the most erious challenge to social cohesion in Anbari society. - There are limited differences in the relationships of with their the respondents families, neighbors and relatives after the duration of the displacement, and these changes tended to deteriorate social relations due to the repercussions of displacement.Key words: Attention control, postgraduate students

Society's reaction to deviants (a sociological study)

Basem K. Zahir; Rabah M.Muhammad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 353-373

The study aims to determine the social reactions to deviant acts, as this study is classified from descriptive studies and then draw conclusions and make proposals, and one of the most important findings of the study is that social deviation is caused by it and it is the society because society helps in the existence of social deviation by setting rules And the general standards, from which the departure is considered deviant, and that the processes of making a criminal or a pervert by the society include elements, titles, signs, actions and explanations that help support the group and achieve its goals and crystallize the resentment of society and the group against the individual who violates the standards and the processes of frustration that drive the deviation begin, and that the power of social control has dimensions Negative behavior towards individuals, and this is what makes them a reason for committing crimes and deviations, as there is a relationship between poor social control, crime and delinquency, so the more methods and means of social control are excessive in using their methods and means, the more there is an impulse to commit crimes and deviations, and the weaker the means of social control pushing individuals to engage in delinquency

Evaluating the efficiency of the motorway network in Anbar Governorate

Nour O. Sabbar; Abdel Nasser S. Shaher

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 374-402

The subject of car transport is of special importance, therefore studies focused on analyzing car transport networks to detect problems that are reflected in the efficiency of traffic, since most of the current car road networks do not meet the requirements of population activities. Therefore, the researchers aim from this research to analyze the efficiency of motorways in Al-Anbar Governorate to reveal the problems that the network suffers from, whether it is related to winding road paths that are sleepy along the roads or the difference in accessibility and difficulty of communication between the nodes as well as the imbalance of the network density with the distribution of cities and administrative units In the province.Therefore, the research problem was identified by a scientific question about the efficiency of the road network of cars in Anbar Governorate, Anbar Governorate. The research hypothesis was formulated according to which the road network of cars in Anbar province is inefficient, as it suffers from a number of problems that made it not meet the requirements of economic and social activities and the requirements of development

The problems of agricultural production in Abu- Ghraib district

Kamal S.Gazgooz; Nada Adil Nawaf

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 403-424

The search deals with the main problems which face agricultural production in Abu Ghraib district. The researcher found the studied area witnessed a big decline in the agricultural area. That was the result of the natural of the security and economic condition that faced the area because of terrorist acts and unwatering after the control on Fallujah and the destruction of the main feeder canal which caused the population depends completely on waters well to remove deficiency that happened to water which caused the high level of salt in addition to the lack of variety in plated crops which suited their ability to undergo waters well and the migration of population to their level and leaving the agricultural area

The reality of electricity services in the urban Cities centers of Erbil Governorate and its future directions

Maha S. K; Meshaal F

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 425-456

The discovery and innovation of electric power and the invention of devices have revolutionized our life in the present century. The problem of determining the share of the electric power service in a precise and clear manner is one of the important steps in the discovery and analysis for the coverage ratio in urban districts centers in Erbil province. Also the factors of the distribution and whether there is a difference in distribution to the urban districts centers in the province, and if it is possible to improve the levels in the study area. The study aims to reveal the role of the electricity service in the life of the urban districts centers by analyzing it, discovering the coordination of its data and efficiency, and identifying its problems, clarifying its role in developing the economic and social life. Also analyzing its components and indicating its coverage ratios and its adequacy for the requirements of human activities and points of weakness and problems regarding the human, economic and building development on one hand, and its natural qualities on the other hand since the fact that the electricity service is the cornerstone of economic and social development in Erbil province. The most important conclusions that the government of the province of Erbil started to depend on attracting investments to the private sector and the most important company that equip the province of Erbil with electricity is Mased Global company, The second project is Car Karup Company

Bringing Icebergs Project to the UAE

Rayyan Thanoon Mahmood

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 457-481

The idea of bringing the icebergs scattered in Antarctica inspired the Emiratis to enter a new field and embark on a unique experience, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had previously implemented it in the 1970s but failed to carry out it. There were opportunities for the Emirates to move an iceberg to the eastern coasts of the country, in cooperation with a specialized French company, according to a specific mechanism which is being done by using the satellite to locate the carried mountain and make electronic simulations to perform this on the ground, as it was hoped that the iceberg would be brought to the Emirate of Fujairah in the middle of the year 2020, but it was postponed due to the coronavirus pandemic that swept the world. Those in charge in the United Arab Emirates hope that the project will achieve great benefits, the most important of which is obtaining a new source that feeds the country with the freshwater it needs, and transforming the Emirate of Fujairah into a tourist resort that attracts millions of tourists who wish to practice the hobby of skiing, and soften the region's atmosphere and make it suitable for agriculture and irrigation

Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the Ramadi dam water for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes

Sara H. Mohammed; Qusay A. Hussain

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 482-515

The hydrological evaluation is one of the studies that have a great Environmental significance, as it affects the natural and the human side in particular. human activities have a clear effect ,and sometimes their impact is significant due to the entry of pollutants and the high proportions of some elements in the aquatic environment. The city of Ramadi suffers from the problem of water pollution represented by the high values of some elements. The research come to study the quantitative evaluation of the Ramadi dam by analyzing the monthly and yearly Euphrates River expenditures of the year (2000:2019) for the presenter and back of the dam, as well as the qualitative evaluation of the dam by taking water samples for the presenter and back of the dam during selected months of the year (2019) Laboratory analysis shows that water quantities are affected by natural climate and human variables represented by control and storage projects, as they are quantitatively different according to the water years, and through laboratory analysis it shows that the proportions of some elements are higher than the border and where both domestically and internationally and reached sulfates element ratio (304.6) mg:liter and provider (332.8) mg:liter the back of the embankment, and the percentage of calcium reached (95.85)mg:liter at the top of the plug, and after testing the validity of the water for human purposes it was found that it is not suitable for drinking except after its purification and is also valid for agricultural and industrial use

Analysis of the relationship between temperature and other climate elements in Haditha for the period 1980 to 201

Rasha M. Mushref; Ismaeil A. Haratart

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 516-525

The study examined the study of the relationship between temperature and different climate elements in Haditha, western Iraq, and the study of climate elements is extremely important because of its direct impact on human life and health. The study concluded that there is a significant correlation between the temperature and the rest of the climate elements for the monthly averages, and the highest correlation between temperature and relative humidity is -0.98, and the annual averages reach the highest correlation with wind speed -0.47, and therefore the temperature values can be predicted by knowing the values of The different elements of the brain for any region