Volume 2021, Issue 1 (Vol 18- Issue 1- 2021), Winter 2021, Page 1-1110


The Economic and Cultural Relations between United States and Iraq 1958-1968

Jamal H.Dhuwaib; Salem I. Mustafa

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 1-33
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171304

On July 14, 1958, Abdul Karim Qassem succeeded in overthrowing the Iraqi regime and its declaration of the Iraqi Republic. This was a shock to the United States of America and its intelligence service (CIA). This is what made it work to create a new type of dealing with the new system in Iraq after Iraq announced a new foreign policy towards the United States of America, but that did not prevent the continuation of economic and cultural exchanges between them, especially with the presence of oil, and this is what made the United States of America strengthen its relations Commercial and building several cultural centers in Iraq linked to its intelligence service (CIA) and this research is a summary of the US-Iraqi economic and cultural relations from 1958-1968

The United States' Attitude on the guerrilla war in Guatemala, 1963-1966

Mohammed Y.Ahmed; Amal O.Khamis

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 34-57
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171305

Guerrilla activity appeared clearly in Guatemala after the Guatemalan government allowed the CIA to establish training bases for Cuban exiles to invade Cuba in 1960 and get rid of the communist government of Fidel Castro, which prompted Guatemalan officers 26to reject this matter, which prompted them to launch a rebellion against the Guatemalan government in 1960, but the Guatemalan government was able Repelling the rebellion with the help of the United States of America, the rebels resumed their activities using the method of guerrilla warfare through hit-and-run operations, and the guerrilla activities led to the concern of the Guatemalan government and the American administration, so the latter took during the year 1965 to develop plans to eliminate the guerrilla war and to provide military aid because the situation was disturbed. Security affects its political interests due to its fear of the penetration of communism and the economy represented by the numerous investments exploited in Guatemala

Jan Bardi Al-Ghazali and his relationship with the Arab tribes in the Niyabah Damascus (Al-Shām), Ottoman kingdom) 922 – 926 AH / 1516 – 1520 CE

Othman I. A; Zuhair G. A

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 58-85
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171306

This research examine the relationship between the deputy of Bilād Al-Shām (The Levant or Historical Syria) Jan Baradi Al-Ghazali with the Arab tribes in NiyabahDamascus (Al-Shām) , Ottoman kingdom), after he a pointed as a deputy at the beginning of the Ottoman era, particularly his relation with Bnu Lam (Tribe of Lalm), and his military campaigns against them because of they attacked the the Hajj (pilgrimage) convoy of Bilād Al-Shām. The research also examine ) Jan Baradi Al-Ghazali relationship with Al Al-Hansh (Al-Hansh tribe) whom stay upon their loyalty to the Mamluks even after their defeat. It is also examine Jan Baradi Al-Ghazali relationship with the tribes of Palestine whom took different positions from him whether during his deputy on Bilād Al-Shām or after his revolt against the Ottoman Empire

Turkey's policy towards ethnic minorities

Anas Younus Abed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 86-102
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171307

The policy of any country towards its minorities reflects the stability and progress of that state. It also reflects the enforced laws on these minorities and the extent to which these rights are fulfilled. This paper examines Turkey's policy towards its ethnic or racial minorities, as this policy differs from that of the others towards religious minorities. This has been evidently clear through Turkish laws and constitutions since the founding of the modern Turkish state until 2002, we will try to answer some questions about this policy and the most important ethnic minorities that existed in Turkish society. Among these questions are: what is the nature of Turkish politics towards minorities? Is there a difference in policy from other religious minorities? What are the most important minorities

The role of the Kurds in Egypt from the Ottoman period to the era of Muhammad Ali Pasha and his successors (1517-1952)

Nibras Khalil Ibrahim

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 103-136
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171308

This study deals with the role of the Kurds in Egypt from the Ottoman era until the era of Muhammad Ali Pasha and his successors, as Egypt is the most Arab country that has close ties with the Kurds. During the era of the rule of the Ayyubid state, as thousands of Kurdish families immigrated, spread from southern Egypt to its north, and many of them occupied political and military positions, in addition to the role of Kurdish merchants and their contribution to economic life, and the stability of some of them in it, and the influx of Kurds continued to Egypt throughout the following eras, whether during the days of rule. The Mamelukes or the Ottomans, and the era of the rule of Muhammad Ali and his successors witnessed a remarkable increase in the migration of the Kurds to it, so Kurdish figures emerged in Egypt who enjoyed an important position immigrated to Egypt from the cities of Kurdistan, and over the years they merged with the Egyptian people and cut off their roots with their original homeland, leaving only the name. As they were called (Kurdish) in relation to their original areas of displacement, or some physical features, and from among these many military leaders, administration men, judges, doctors, and professions emerged Descine, writers, poets, jurists, and artists, and they provided services to Egypt and the wheel of the modern renaissance in Egypt revolved at their hands at a time when they did not deny their Kurdish nationalism

Atta Amin and its cultural and political impact in lraq

Anwar Nasser Hassan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 137-154
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171309

Atta Amin's character is considered one of the prominent literary figures in Iraq during the twenties of the last century, as his writings were distinguished by the reformist tendency of society and the call for liberation from the outdated traditions prevailing at the time, as well as “the diplomat’s course during his work in the foreign service and his great capabilities in the field of translation and sober writing.He is one of the few Iraqi writers who have written about Iraqi narrative literature and has become a pioneer in it. His thoughts focus on attempts to overcome the difficult circumstances that Iraq faced, especially backwardness, ignorance and deprivation during the British occupation.His work in the diplomatic and foreign affairs field contributed to enhancing his ambitions of building an advanced society that lives economically in political and security stability like any other

Scientific Religious Surnames and their Implications in the Arab Islamic Society

Abdul Sattar M. D; Abdul Karim M. Abed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 155-178
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171310

Addressing scientific religious surnames and their implications in the Arab Islamic society is considered an important step that emphasizes the association of the scholar to his community. Through surnames, we were able to know scholars in various fields of specialization, the scientific or the humanitarian, because most of the important scientific figures in the society are known for their surnames as a kind of pride to be affiliated to sciences they excelled in, such as Al-Faqeeh (philologist) and Al-Hafidh (memorizing the Holy Quran) among others. Moreover, they became inseparable from the scholars in accordance to the cultural development of the Arab Islamic society, especially the Abbasid Era (132 AH - 656AD).

The positive effects of the succession policy in the Maghreb from the conquest until the end of the Almohad state

Badei M. I; Mohammed H. Y

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 179-201
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171311

This research was devoted to studying the implications of the policy of inclusiveness in the Maghreb from the conquest to the end of the Almohad state. As some of the policies that were adopted behind it were positive with positive effects that were characterized in many aspects, such as the military side that represented in the conquests and expansion of the Arab-Islamic state, and the spread of Islam after the elimination of its enemies, as well as the security and stability that the Moroccan population obtained, whether it was from the Arab tribes Mother of the Arabs of Morocco (Berbers) in the era of some governors, princes and workers.

Pages from the history of the Apostolic State for the period (842 AH to 858 AH) through the Manuscript of the History of the Mukashik (904 AH)

Iftikhar A. Rajab; Nour S. Nasser

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 202-228
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171312

The research dealt with the political conditions of Yemen in an important era in the history of the Apostolic State (626 AH - 858 AH), which was marked by the appearance of features of weakness and collapse in which slaves soon dominated the state administration because of the weakness of kings and internal conflicts between its sons. The research began with the death of the apparent Apostolic King (831 AH - 842 AH), and his son, the Honorable King, assumed power until the year 858 AH, which ends with the ouster of the Apostolic King Masoud himself from the king, and Banu Taher assumed rule of the country. The research included two parts, the first study covered the definition of the manuscript, its percentage, the writer's sources, style, and method of investigation. The second section included the investigated text

Al-Maqbari’s Family Narrations in the Social Aspects

Abdul-Jabbar M. S; Omar M. Hameed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 229-256
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171313

This research deals with the Al-Muqbari’s family. This family were among the loyal followers who had a great role in the intellectual aspect,. The reason behind that is its members were narrators of the hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the historical events. The members of this family lived an era that extended from Caliph Umar Ibn Al-Khattab’s till the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma`mun’s era. That period was full of events and disturbances. This family restricted its role on the narration of the hadith and the history. The family took the narrations from a group of great scholars. They also had a large number of students who narrated their hadiths and historical narration. Some of the narrations which are Al-Muqbari’s family narrated were ones that revealed the social side. They mentioned narrations about the food, its etiquette and its types. They also had some narrations about the drinks, mattresses and rugs, utensils and tools. They even included the clothes, decorations and tools in their narrations which all of them were among the. things that prevailed in the Islamic society bac then

Economic blockade and social oppression at the beginning of the Islamic call and its impact on the migration of Muslims

Rashid Ahmed Mukhtar

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 257-278
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171314

The muslims have been Persecuted by the polytheists who have faced the new religion cruelly, used torching, starving and killing to stop muslims with their religion, so the immigration was the best way to protect muslims,and keep the lack of people who believed from temptation,and congrats them on the subsequent jihad stages.And this research tries to focus on the effects of the blockade in the migration,this research consist of introduction and then reboot of the definition of migration and three researches:The research had some results like:the social persecution and economic blockade that were in the beginning of Quraish’s means to stop islam,and Quraish have practiced the economic boycott to muslim merchants when they stopped dealing with them in addition to starving poor people

Economic activities in the ancient kingdom of Hadhramout

Said Salmin Omar Belafir

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 278-312
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171315

Hadramout in the past enjoyed a special place among the kingdoms of southern Arabia and the regions of the ancient Near East through its possession of a number of peculiarities, including the geographical location of global trade and the various natural and climatic conditions, as well as the work of its people in crafts and trade professions that helped the economic prosperity, which thus constituted an important tributary of trade besides What was received by its ports of materials and goods from the regions of the Indian subcontinent, Africa and the Mediterranean basin.The research concluded that the mastery of civilization and their exploitation of natural factors such as water and fertility of the land and the appropriate climate, in addition to the human factors represented in manpower and the existence of a civilized and stable society resulted in a growth in urbanization, sophistication and wealth for the old Hadrami man, so cities and the commercial center and the prosperity of economic activity, diversified industries, and trade grew This led to the growth of its military and economic power, and it played a major role among advanced civilizations

Signs of violence and extremism in the news discourse of the new media about the Events in Syria (An analytical study on Sky News)

Damya Hussein Ghadeyb Murshid Al-Rubaie

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 313-342
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171316

This study aims to identify indicators of violence and extremism in the uses of modern electronic media in their dealings with news and reports of sites of violence, war, terrorism and extremism in all forms in the conflicting countries of the world. The study focused on sky news website and return to Sky News and its satellite news channel in its coverage of the aspects of the crisis that is ravaging Syria, which involved a regional conflict involving international poles such as Russia, Turkey and the United States of America as well as armed groups and extremist movements, and the researcher conducted a comprehensive survey of the site for two consecutive months using the descriptive method and the survey method - analytical, and included the research included three chapters of the investigations, the first chapter (systematic framework of research) while the second included the second chapter The third chapter focused on analyzing data on research across major and subgroups and interpreting their results

Intellectual extremism and ways to confront it incontemporary Iraqi society Analytical study from a social perspective

Hamdan Ramadan Mohammed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 343-377
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171317

This research aimed to identify the nature of intellectual extremism in our Iraqi society? What are the reasons for its spread at the present time? What are its types? How can we define its manifestations? What are its effects on the reality of Iraqi society, so that we understand its meaning and all of this clearly, this is what we will address in this modest research in some detail.in this research, we have tried to use a combination of approaches to study the concept of intellectual extremism and the developments that have developed for it in order to reach conclusions that contribute to creating a societal immunity from intellectual deviation that may lead to extremism in all its forms and forms, and therefore the research has started from its dependence on the inductive, deductive and deductive approach to stand by description and tracking definitions The components and nature of intellectual extremism and how to deal with it in society

Social cohesion in the Anbar community for the post-displacement period

Baker Khedar Jasim; Hameed Kurdy

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 378-409
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171319

This study is one of the descriptive field studies, and aims mainly to identify the nature of social cohesion in the Anbar community after the displacement phase, as well as to highlight the reasons that threaten social cohesion and ways to maintain. The study relied on the social survey methodology by using the questionnaire tool, which was distributed to a sample of (300) male and female respondents, in addition to some interviews with active persons within the community.- The triad of terrorism, corruption and tribal conflicts is the most erious challenge to social cohesion in Anbari society. - There are limited differences in the relationships of with their the respondents families, neighbors and relatives after the duration of the displacement, and these changes tended to deteriorate social relations due to the repercussions of displacement.Key words: Attention control, postgraduate students

Society's reaction to deviants (a sociological study)

Basem K. Zahir; Rabah M.Muhammad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 410-433
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171320

The study aims to determine the social reactions to deviant acts, as this study is classified from descriptive studies and then draw conclusions and make proposals, and one of the most important findings of the study is that social deviation is caused by it and it is the society because society helps in the existence of social deviation by setting rules And the general standards, from which the departure is considered deviant, and that the processes of making a criminal or a pervert by the society include elements, titles, signs, actions and explanations that help support the group and achieve its goals and crystallize the resentment of society and the group against the individual who violates the standards and the processes of frustration that drive the deviation begin, and that the power of social control has dimensions Negative behavior towards individuals, and this is what makes them a reason for committing crimes and deviations, as there is a relationship between poor social control, crime and delinquency, so the more methods and means of social control are excessive in using their methods and means, the more there is an impulse to commit crimes and deviations, and the weaker the means of social control pushing individuals to engage in delinquency

Evaluating the efficiency of the motorway network in Anbar Governorate

Nour O. Sabbar; Abdel Nasser S. Shaher

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 434-460
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171365

The subject of car transport is of special importance, therefore studies focused on analyzing car transport networks to detect problems that are reflected in the efficiency of traffic, since most of the current car road networks do not meet the requirements of population activities. Therefore, the researchers aim from this research to analyze the efficiency of motorways in Al-Anbar Governorate to reveal the problems that the network suffers from, whether it is related to winding road paths that are sleepy along the roads or the difference in accessibility and difficulty of communication between the nodes as well as the imbalance of the network density with the distribution of cities and administrative units In the province.Therefore, the research problem was identified by a scientific question about the efficiency of the road network of cars in Anbar Governorate, Anbar Governorate. The research hypothesis was formulated according to which the road network of cars in Anbar province is inefficient, as it suffers from a number of problems that made it not meet the requirements of economic and social activities and the requirements of development

The problems of agricultural production in Abu- Ghraib district

Kamal S.Gazgooz; Nada Adil Nawaf

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 461-484
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171367

The search deals with the main problems which face agricultural production in Abu Ghraib district. The researcher found the studied area witnessed a big decline in the agricultural area. That was the result of the natural of the security and economic condition that faced the area because of terrorist acts and unwatering after the control on Fallujah and the destruction of the main feeder canal which caused the population depends completely on waters well to remove deficiency that happened to water which caused the high level of salt in addition to the lack of variety in plated crops which suited their ability to undergo waters well and the migration of population to their level and leaving the agricultural area

The reality of electricity services in the urban Cities centers of Erbil Governorate and its future directions

Maha S. K; Meshaal F

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 485-516
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171370

The discovery and innovation of electric power and the invention of devices have revolutionized our life in the present century. The problem of determining the share of the electric power service in a precise and clear manner is one of the important steps in the discovery and analysis for the coverage ratio in urban districts centers in Erbil province. Also the factors of the distribution and whether there is a difference in distribution to the urban districts centers in the province, and if it is possible to improve the levels in the study area. The study aims to reveal the role of the electricity service in the life of the urban districts centers by analyzing it, discovering the coordination of its data and efficiency, and identifying its problems, clarifying its role in developing the economic and social life. Also analyzing its components and indicating its coverage ratios and its adequacy for the requirements of human activities and points of weakness and problems regarding the human, economic and building development on one hand, and its natural qualities on the other hand since the fact that the electricity service is the cornerstone of economic and social development in Erbil province. The most important conclusions that the government of the province of Erbil started to depend on attracting investments to the private sector and the most important company that equip the province of Erbil with electricity is Mased Global company, The second project is Car Karup Company

Bringing Icebergs Project to the UAE

Rayyan Thanoon Mahmood

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 517-544
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171371

The idea of bringing the icebergs scattered in Antarctica inspired the Emiratis to enter a new field and embark on a unique experience, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had previously implemented it in the 1970s but failed to carry out it. There were opportunities for the Emirates to move an iceberg to the eastern coasts of the country, in cooperation with a specialized French company, according to a specific mechanism which is being done by using the satellite to locate the carried mountain and make electronic simulations to perform this on the ground, as it was hoped that the iceberg would be brought to the Emirate of Fujairah in the middle of the year 2020, but it was postponed due to the coronavirus pandemic that swept the world. Those in charge in the United Arab Emirates hope that the project will achieve great benefits, the most important of which is obtaining a new source that feeds the country with the freshwater it needs, and transforming the Emirate of Fujairah into a tourist resort that attracts millions of tourists who wish to practice the hobby of skiing, and soften the region's atmosphere and make it suitable for agriculture and irrigation

Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the Ramadi dam water for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes

Sara H. Mohammed; Qusay A. Hussain

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 545-579
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171372

The hydrological evaluation is one of the studies that have a great Environmental significance, as it affects the natural and the human side in particular. human activities have a clear effect ,and sometimes their impact is significant due to the entry of pollutants and the high proportions of some elements in the aquatic environment. The city of Ramadi suffers from the problem of water pollution represented by the high values of some elements. The research come to study the quantitative evaluation of the Ramadi dam by analyzing the monthly and yearly Euphrates River expenditures of the year (2000:2019) for the presenter and back of the dam, as well as the qualitative evaluation of the dam by taking water samples for the presenter and back of the dam during selected months of the year (2019) Laboratory analysis shows that water quantities are affected by natural climate and human variables represented by control and storage projects, as they are quantitatively different according to the water years, and through laboratory analysis it shows that the proportions of some elements are higher than the border and where both domestically and internationally and reached sulfates element ratio (304.6) mg:liter and provider (332.8) mg:liter the back of the embankment, and the percentage of calcium reached (95.85)mg:liter at the top of the plug, and after testing the validity of the water for human purposes it was found that it is not suitable for drinking except after its purification and is also valid for agricultural and industrial use

Analysis of the relationship between temperature and other climate elements in Haditha for the period 1980 to 2017

Rasha M. Mushref; Ismaeil A. Haratart

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 579-590
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171373

The study examined the study of the relationship between temperature and different climate elements in Haditha, western Iraq, and the study of climate elements is extremely important because of its direct impact on human life and health. The study concluded that there is a significant correlation between the temperature and the rest of the climate elements for the monthly averages, and the highest correlation between temperature and relative humidity is -0.98, and the annual averages reach the highest correlation with wind speed -0.47, and therefore the temperature values can be predicted by knowing the values of The different elements of the brain for any region

The possibility of recycling household waste for agricultural purposes in the city of Fallujah

Diane H. Suleiman; Khaled A Abdullah

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 591-615
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171547

The process of recycling household waste is of great importance to preserve the environment and reduce waste of raw raw materials and reduce environmental pollution as well as providing workers with opportunities for the population, and since the city of Fallujah, like other Iraqi cities, suffers from a problem of household waste, the researcher has studied the amount of waste produced by the city Its quantities were measured by the amount of city waste from waste through the collection of waste by a sample consisting of ten different families in their economic level and the number of their members for a week As the amount of waste produced by the city reached (84,646) kg / day and the per capita waste generation reached (48,875) g / day and these large quantities of waste are wasted without treatment as they are disposed of in the landfill of the city of Fallujah (behind the refrigerated warehouses) and that The largest amount of waste that is disposed of is organic waste that can be used for agricultural purposes, so the researcher conducted an experiment to produce organic fertilizer from the waste, as the amount of what the city produces from organic waste reached (64248) kg / day, which is enough to meet the need (8220) Acres of agricultural land of fertilizer and tablet Jeh (26667) sheep / day and(1390) cows

Spatial variation of the deprivation levels of services surrounding the home in Hit

Shaima G.A; Amjad R. M; Thaer S. M

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 616-643
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171550

Variation in levels of infrastructure services at the neighborhood level and drawing a map for this difference. It became necessary to analyze the reality of those services according to the index (and the negative phenomena around housing). The city of Heet suffers from a disadvantage of getting rid of the negative phenomena surrounding the house and by (43.4)% at the level of Throughout the city, and this ratio varies from one neighborhood to another. A statistical method has been adopted to measure the level of deprivation and knowledge of the most disadvantaged neighborhoods using the Carstairs Index, which has recently gained great importance and fame, as nine variables were studied that reflect the negative phenomena surrounding housing and the most impact on the comfort and reassurance of the city's residents. They are (noise, smoke, bad smells, insects and rodents, stray dogs, standing water, security risks, thefts and killings) It was noted that the city in general suffers from the impact of these phenomena at a rate of (12,832).

Spatial variation of fruit trees in Heet district for the period 2009-2019

Moaz R. Nassar; Taha A. Abdel

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 644-679
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171553

The research deals with a study and analysis of the spatial variation of fruit trees in the Heet district for the period (2009_2019), and identifies the rate of change between them, by discussing the natural and human characteristics that led to geographical variation in the cultivated areas and the numbers and varieties of its trees and production quantities, which affected its variation The spatial location of the regions of the study area at the level of the administrative units (the districts), and upon analyzing the spatial variation of fruit crops and their varieties, it was found that the geographical distribution of them in terms of their area is taking the same distribution in almost all aspects of the study area with an area of (10689) acres, with a percentage (0.4%) of the area DRA area The total capacity of 2632000 dunums is varied and varies in terms of their number also between one region and another, while some areas are crowded with the number of trees, the other suffers from a shortage. This number is characterized by a decline from one period to another, and fruit production reached (14305) tons for the year 2009 and (8571.2) Tons for the year 2019 CE with a negative change rate for the same years amounted to (-40.1) and the presence of a clear spatial variation in the characteristics of geographical distribution at the level of regions.

Evaluating the change in agricultural production for strategic crops in Anbar Governorate

Jameela N. Sabbar; Amna J. Muter

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 680-701
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171556

The need to expand in the cultivation of strategic crops (wheat, yellow corn, barley) is one of the necessities of the present and future human life in order to link these crops with food and feed millions of them, unlike the regions of the globe, and this expansion comes by following a set of methods such as vertical and horizontal expansion in production It is one of the best ways to properly balance the amount of production and productivity, and what the province possesses from large areas of land not yet used, including what is close to the course of the river, and some of it is far from it represented by desert lands

The Geographic Ability of Public Services of the Countryside in the Outskirt of Rawa.

Noor Yassen; Abd ulrzzaq M. Jabbar

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 702-725
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171557

Rural services and what it contains in terms of uses of land and services of both types: the societal and central are complementary to the city. So it is necessary to pay attention to the countryside because it achieves this integration, especially the countryside of Rawa district which possesses great capabilities and the availability of vacant lands. These uses and services are the measure of the progress of the countryside for this reason the services were studied in both their societal and mainstay aspects, the population study for which services are established. Thus one of the most important aspects of rural development is providing services to the people who live in those countryside and districts and sometimes it goes beyond that.That is it provides serveces to the inhabitants inthe other places and cities. The study found that there are many districts empty of residents and other activities due to the security situation.Some of them have a population density of less than one person per square kilometer.Furthermore,there is a shortage of health services, especially if we know that the share of a single health center is less than 2,500 people because it is a branch health center.

Population Growth n Iraq Impacts and Challenges

Shaker Mahmoud Aeal Al-ameeri

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 726-753
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171559

The Research resumes the growth of Iraqi population between (1947-2018) and the consequences resulted in growth average and the influence of fertility. This influence was represented in a number of demographic and population changes such as death levels fluctuate for infants under five as well as maternal mortality during pregnancy, Knowing the levels of using family planning methods for Iraqi women, the effect of high population growth in the sectors of education and health and the interrelationship between them.The Research concluded a set of outcomes, the most important of which is that the size of the population in Iraq doubles once every twenty years: annual rate of (2.58) % in (2018) as well as a low fertility rate of 3.9 live births.At the level of the education sector, it was found that the size of pupils in primary education is growing (4.3) % compared to the number of primary schools, which increased (3.4) % between (1997-2017).The Research showed a decrease in the number of health institutions compared to the growth of population. The percentage of increase in public hospitals reached (3.2) %, while the growth rate population was (5.3) in (1977-2016)

The effect of the relief factor on the (main) transport network In Al Sulaymaniyah province

Samah Alwan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 754-777
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171560

The natural factors have an impact on transportation network, especially the relief factor and the topographical nature of the region, which is reflected in the accessibility the various district centers in the Sulaymaniyah province , as well as the detour of roads due to that relief nature. The study of this features is of great importance in planning studies to construct roads and solve city problems, And its development. The research used satellite images and geographic information systems programs in measuring the lengths of roads in the province and topographic mapping to show the impact of relief on the turn of the roads as well as applying accessibility index. The research found that the Sulaymaniyah center is the most accessible according to the minimum distance standard and is the closest nodes for other nodes according to the standard number of connections of the nodes Also, the main methods of province falls into the first and fourth classes when applying the index of curve or curve coefficient.

An Evaluation for the Efficiency of Educational Services at Al-Fallujah City at 2019-2020 (A Study in Geography of Cities)

Huda Hussain Ali

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 778-808
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171561

Educational services are one of the pillars of the social andcultural development, the study dealt with the efficiency of the educational governmental services at AL-Fallujah city in 2019-2020 depending mainly on the empirical study and analytical approach, by many planned standards, and local Iraqi educational indicators and their application to check its efficiency and suitability to meet the needs of its people. After examining the educational services and its geographical distribution as well as the comprehensive survey of all the governmental kindergartens and schools that fell on the visible satellite (WorldView-3), accuracy(30cm), extension(JPEG) in 2017 and the empirical study in August 2020, it was generally noticed that the averages of the schools and classes of the students are higher than the specific standar. In addition, the education suffers from a shortage in the school’s buildings which caused an overcrowding, duality and increasment in the number of students in the class that it is in return block the process of proper education. This is can be due not only for a decreasment in its number but also for the lack in planning for future which overlooks the increase in the number of people. Then, the researcher has reached for certain results and recommendations.

Parental involvement for high school students

Thaar A.K; Yasser K. R

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 809-846
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171563

The current research problem has been identified in the following questions:- Is there a parental involvement For high school students ?- What is the role of some variables in determining each of them ?The researcher adopted the relational descriptive approach in his research, and the research sample consisted of (374) male and female students from high school students in the city of Ramadi for the academic year 2019-2020. The sample was chosen according to Stephen Thompson's equation.The researcher prepared the Parent Vein Scale, which consists of (3) main fields divided into (36) items with four alternatives (always applies, sometimes I apply, apply to me rarely, never applies to me).1 - The presence of parental involvement at the students stage Preparatory and with a high indication.2 - There are statistically significant differences between the mean scores of students on the Parent involvement Scale according to two variables (male, female), in favor of males, and the branch (scientific, literary) in favor of branch scientific.

Psychometric properties of the obsessive compulsing symptoms scale in asample of Baghdad university students

Asiar Fakrie rahomie

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 847-881
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171564

The present study aimed at detecting local item dependence (LID) between the test item pairs using Q3 index; identifying the percentage of item pairs that appear LID under different levels of examinees ability, and identifying the relationship between two Item Response Theory (IRT) assumptions: Uni-dimensionality and Local Item Independence, according to the 2Parameters Logistic Model (2-PLM). To achieve this, the researcher used data available about of obsessive compulsion scale, (OCS) prepared by Baghdad university, which is used to measure the freshman students’ level when joining the (BA) program in 2007/2008. The test consisted of (81) items measure some computer skills. The sample of the study consisted of (1108) examinees, distributed into five different sessions on the same test. To analyze the collected data, the researcher used three statistical programs (SPSS, Bilog-MG3, LDID) respectively.The results of the study indicated that the percentage of item pairs that reveal LID, using Q3 index, estimated at about 0.135. The results also indicated that the percentage of item pairs that reveal LID, using Q3 index, increased with increased examinees ability level. Finally, the results indicated that the two item response theory (IRT) assumptions: Unidimensionality and Local Item Independence were equivalent assumptions.

Attention Control for Postgraduate Students

Mohammed Kh. Rashid; Safi Ammal Saleh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 882-913
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171565

The aims of the research are:1- Attention control of postgraduate students.2- The significance of the differences in attention control according to the variables of the type (male, female) and specialization (scientific, humanistic) among postgraduate students.The researcher has adopted the relational descriptive approach in his research. The sample of the research consists of (276) male and female students from postgraduate students at Anbar University for the academic year 2019-2020, and the sample was chosen according to the Stephen Thompson equation.He also adopted a measure of the attention control Eysenck & Calvo (1992). It consists of (3) fields with (48) items that have five graded alternatives. The researcher has verified the validity of the apparent scale and the validity of the scale construction by finding the correlation between the degree of the item and the overall degree of the scale, and the relation between the item and the field that belongs to. The stability of the scale has been verified by two methods: (test - retest).After completing the application of the two measures on the participants of the sample under the supervision of the researcher, the results show:1. Postgraduate students are characterized by attention control with high-level.2. There is no statistically significant difference according to the type variable (male, female) in the attention control.3. There is no statistically significant difference according to the specialty variable (scientific, human) in the attention control.prison.

The Effect of the Divergent Thinking Strategies in the Achievement of the second Intermediate Class Female Students in Mathematics

Elaf Gany Khaleel; Ilham Jabbar Faris

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 814-942
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171568

The research`s goal is to realize The Impact of Divergent Thinking Strategies In achievement and multiple intelligences, and to achieve the research goal, the experimental research method was adopted and a partially controlled experimental design was used for two groups equivalents, using the post test for both achievement and multiple intelligence. The research community was students of the second intermediate class in schools of the General Directorate of Education in Anbar, for the academic year 2019-2020. The sample of the research consisted of (64) students from (Al-Raja Secondary School for Girls). It includes three sections. Department A was chosen as an experimental group comprising (31) students and (b) the group as a control group consisting of (33) students. The two groups were an identity in some variables, experiment requirements were prepared, scientific material was analyzed, content was analyzed, behavioral purposes formulated, and teaching plans prepared And search tools (Achievement test in mathematics, multiple intelligence test) The achievement test consisted of (35) items that included (11) article paragraphs and (24) objective paragraphs.

The effect of a teaching strategy on the Needham constructivist model in achievement In Mathematics for fourth-grade students

Themina J.Oudah; Ilham J. Fares

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 943-965
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171571

The aim of the research is to know the effect. of a teaching strategy according to the Needham constructivist model in scientifically achievement in mathematics for fourth-grade students . It was adopted on Experimental mothed with the post test for achievement test to achieve the aim. The research community that represents the preparatory and secondary schools for boys has been identified within the General Directorate of Education in Baghdad / Karkh II, the research sample was selected (65) students from the fourth scientific grade from the Al-Hakim Preparatory School for Boys at random, and the sample was distributed into two groups, an experimental group and a control group :the experimental group (33) students was studied according to the Needham constructivist model. The control group of (32) students was studied according to the traditional method.The researchers made balance between. the two research. groups in some variables such as (time age, previous achievement, previous information, intelligence level), The achievement. test was built on the basis of the test map that was prepared after the content was analyzed according to the knowledge included and set (150) behavioral purposes according to the results of the analysis that was concluded, and the test is in its final form of (40) test items of two types, the objective and the number of paragraphs ( 35) The subjective and the number of its paragraphs (5). The experiment. was applied in the. first semester of the academic year (2019-2020) with (5) lessons weekly. Its plans were prepared after presenting samples of them.

Factors affecting the recruitment of a faculty member for the electronic class of physics in university teaching

Samira Adnan Tharthar

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 966-990
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171573

The objective of the research (factors affecting the employment of a faculty member for electronic classes of physics in university teaching) for the academic year (2020-2021), where the researcher followed the descriptive analytical approach as she used a questionnaire as a tool to collect information that was distributed directly to a sample consisting of ( 81) One of the faculty members and the researcher followed up sending the questionnaire by sending a personal email to each faculty member, according to the test's desire. The data were processed statistically using appropriate statistical methods, and the results showed that the general average of the level of knowledge possessed by faculty members at Anbar University (College of Pure Education and The College of Agriculture) on the importance of employing electronic education for electronic classes in university teaching, and the research ended with a set of recommendations, the most prominent of which was the need for faculty members to possess the technical and technical skills in dealing with electronic classes and adopt them as the most important technical innovations in contemporary university educational practice of the Corona crisis to increase the effectiveness of university teaching.

The effect of using the listening triangle strategy on improving the skill of microscopic reading health among a sample of students with primary learning difficulties

Ismael Abdal Hasso Mustafa

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 991-1028
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171574

The current research aimed at identifying the effect of using the listening triangle strategy to improve the skill of microscopic reading health among a sample of students with learning difficulties in the primary stage, where the sample of the research reached (16) male and female students from the fourth primary class (special education) and both sexes in the Hamdaniya district Affiliated to Nineveh Governorate for the academic year 2019-2020, distributed equally to two groups: experimental and controlling by (8) students in each group, then the researcher rewarded statistically between the two groups in variables (time age, average rate, students ’grades in the Arabic language, educational level of parents And the mothers of the students, the degree of skill of reading aloud. The researcher prepared a test to measure the skills of reading aloud (the health of reading) for these students. For the test by presenting it to a group of arbitrators to know the extent of its readiness to apply and then the researcher extracted stability in the way of re-testing, while the research results showed that there is a statistically significant difference for the benefit of the students of the group Pilot who studied according to the strategy of the listening triangle and its superiority over the control group that studied according to the usual method.

The effect of the Jigsaw strategy on the skillful thinking of second-grade intermediate students

Hala Adeeb Dawood

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 1029-1049
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171577

The aim of this research is to study the effect of Jigsaw strategy on the skillful thinking of second-grade intermediate students in science. Where the researcher formulated the hypothesis of the study as follows: “There are no statistically significant differences at the level of (0.05) between the average scores of the experimental group of students studying the science subject according to the strategy (Jigsaw in smart thinking) and the average scores of the control group of students studying the same subject according to The traditional method for their educational attainment.”The research was conducted at a school in Taglob in Ninawah, and included 59 students in two groups: the first was a control group, and the second was an experimental one. The first was 29 students, and the second 30 male students, in order to find out the effect of the Jigsaw strategy on the students' smart thinking, the researcher conducted the pre-post test. The validity of the tool was confirmed by presenting it to specialized arbitrators, and it was with a reliability factor (86). As for the coefficient of stability for subtle thinking, it reached (81), and as the results showed the superiority of the teaching method based on the Jigsaw strategy in skillful thinking surpassed the traditional method of teaching in the achievement test for the science subject of the second intermediate grade, and the researcher presented a number of conclusions, recommendations and proposals

The impact of the use of brainstorm strategy on the score of 5th year-scientific section students in Mathematics

Shaimaa’ Hikmat Ahemd Quaba

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 1050-1075
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171578

This study aims at knowing the impact of the use of brainstorm strategy on the score of 5th year-scientific section students in Mathematics. To get that, the zero hypothesis has been used as such: there is no difference of a statistical relevance at (0,05) between the average of some targeted students’ scores who studied by the brainstorm strategy and students of the organized group who studied by the common method as far as the score test is concerned. This experiment was applied on a group of 5th year-scientific section students at Hims High School in Mosul in 2019-2020. The study target included 68 students divided into two groups: one is experimental (33) students who studied by the brainstorm strategy, and another organized one (35) students who studied by the normal method. Both groups were in equivalence with (age, general average, Mathematics score of 4th year-scientific section class, and intelligence score). To check the study hypothesis, the researcher made a statistical test in Mathematics which has 10 objective items, and checked the consistency and difficulty coefficient in addition to the activity of the error alternative of the test questions.

The degree of availability of historical thinking skills in the history book of the class of the fourth literary in Iraq

Salwan Mohammed Hussein

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 1, Pages 1076-1110
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171580

The aim of this study was to determine the degree of availability of historical thinking skills in the history book for the fourth grade in Iraq and to mention some variables (type, educational level, teaching experience). The researcher prepared a questionnaire of 65 teachers and the researcher prepared a questionnaire consisting of 47 paragraphs divided into seven skills