Volume 2021, Issue 3, Winter 2021


The Libyan - Soviet Rapprochement and Its Impact On The Libyan- American Relations 1969-1985

Samir W.K; Jamal H. Dhuwaib

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 1-18

Discussing the Relations That linked Libya With Each Of The United States of America on The one hand and the Soviet Union on the other hand, Forms Part of a Picture of International Relations in that Period that had its Repercussions on Libya, Which at the Same Time Formed a Strategic importance for both countries that Lost their Strategic Position On the Mediterranean (Egypt), what is Happening in any country cannot be separated from what is happening in its Regional and International Surroundings, and this Applies to Libya of Course, which Continued to affect and be Affected by the Great Powers' Struggle, Especially the two Great Powers at the time, the United States of America and the Soviet Union. We can say that the Relations between the three Parties are Built on the basis of a Convergence of Interests, so Libya was closer to the Soviets than America, After Gaddafi's actions that were Considered by America against it, Starting with the Evacuation of the American bases on July 11, 1970 through the Nationalization of Oil Companies, and the US Aircraft’s Violation of the Field Libyan air Force in 1972, 1973 and 1980, and the Aggression on the Gulf of Sirte in 1981.

The political, economic and social activity of the Jews of Egypt 1922-1952

Eyad Ayesh Mohammed; abdul sattar jaijer abd

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 19-52

The Jews of Egypt played a great role in the history of Egypt in all aspects, and they had a great activity in the political, economic and social life, because of the important advantages they enjoyed, especially the economic field, as they had wide control over the Egyptian economy, benefiting from their enjoyment of the system of foreign privileges, and what this provides The system is completely or almost completely exempt from taxes, in addition to having large financial resources because they are skilled in this field thanks to their commercial mentality, in addition to their work in professions that Muslims believed were not socially suitable for them, such as weaving, crafting and others. Thus, their good financial situation, through their establishment of banks and insurance companies, helped them to have extensive relations inside Egypt that reached the ruling class , Especially during the time of King Fouad and also during the reign of King Farouk, which contributed to their obtaining many important political positions, as well as their control over most of the economic and social institutions in Egypt during that era. From these perspectives, this research came to study the political, economic and social activity of the Jews of Egypt (1922-1952).

The intellectual impact of the inmates of Mecca in the eleventh century AH / seventeenth century AD according to al-Mohebi (model)

Ferdos A. Kareem

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 53-88

I signed my choice to the topic "The intellectual impact of the inmates of Makkah in the eleventh century on the part of Al-Mohebbi as an example. Because of the importance of this topic, so I decided to discuss it, because of the importance and status of Mecca, which it was and still enjoys among Muslims. The inmates had a distinctive impact on the scientific activity that Muslims benefited from, represented in the production of many books and literature in various literary, scientific and jurisprudential fields, and they also reached the highest scientific and religious positions, such as the position of fatwas, judiciary, rhetoric, teaching and others. " The residents did not come to Makkah while they were devoid of knowledge and science. On the contrary, they intended it while they had been students of virtuous sheikhs in their country or other Islamic countries. Of those who settled in it. These inmates did not have a single level of education, as they gradually graduated from those who came to study in the scholars of Makkah, and those in it to those distinctive creative groups. Some of these inmates were the test subjects of the honorable person of Mecca or of some of his contemporary scholars, especially those who excelled in the field of medicine. “That there should be some of these tests to highlight the creative aspects in which the residents of Makkah have excelled

Iraq in the American strategy during World War II 1939-1945 AD

Fawaz Hammad Mahmoud

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 89-122

The research aims to highlight the position of Iraq in the American strategy during the Second World War (1939-1945) and the areas and aspects through which the United States of America sought to enter Iraq, taking advantage of the war and economic lost conditions that Iraq was going through, and the outbreak of the May 1941 uprising in it, and the need for its location The geopolitical importance in the war against the Axis powers that tried to strengthen their relations with the nationalist trend represented by Rashid Ali Al-Kilani and the Four Colonels and the role of the United States of America in supporting Britain, to abort the May 1941 uprising, and the return of the British to occupy Iraq again, and turn it into an arena for international conflict during World War II and exploitation The United States of America to establish its interests in this country, which enjoys economic capabilities and a strategic location for the richest of a great power such as the United States of America seeks to control the Middle East region, leaving it to others

Ahmed Kamel Afifi, "His biography, cultural activity and vision in building the Egyptian economy until 1952"Historical study

Sarmad Akidi Fathi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 123-141

This study dealt with the biography of one of the Egyptian national personalities, which contributed an active role in the modern and contemporary history of Egypt, not only from a political point of view, but also on the cultural, economic and intellectual levels, as it has many talents at all levels. However, she did not take her right to research and study in comparison to some other personalities, as she did not place herself beside the figures who rushed to leadership and search for fame and authority, and this made me study this character.

The support of the Kurdish tribes to the Emir (Abu al-Fath Mirza Salar al-Dawla) in his movements to claim the Qajar throne 1906-1912 A.D. A historical analysis of the causes and consequences

Luqman A. Mohammed Khayali

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 142-184

The rulers of Qajar in Iran were known of their cruelty and tyranny, whether they were kings of Tehran or dynasts in the states. However, their rudeness and cruelty associated with the citizens in another disrepute greediness to gain money and wealth, looting people and exceeding their rights. Perhaps the serious danger of all that is the existence of suspicious links of corrupted Qajar rulers with influential foreigners in the country (Russian and English ) that made Iran a region of conflict between both sides for a long time which required reaching to an agreement to divide areas of influence between them according to the treaty of 1907. While the situation in the capital was escalating towards being worse due to the repercussions of the constitutional revolution 1906-1907, and the separating the Iranian people between supporters and opponents of this revolution. This division occurred as a result of the positions of some of the Qajar princes regarding the revolution and its repercussions. The tribal chiefs in the Kurdish region stood by the Salar Al-Dawla, who had an ambition to be a Shah of Iran, and his movements caused great obstacles for the government and the Iranian court together during the years that followed the constitutional revolution.

The role of the University of Anbar in the development of society and contemporary challenges (1987-2018)

Ali J. Mohammed; Ahmed R

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 185-208

Anbar University was founded in late December 1987, as part of the general trend towards expanding the circle of higher education and scientific research in Iraq, as well as the need of Anbar province for a university that achieves the country's vision in development and development. In establishing a distinct scientific, cultural and development vision, as well as the values influenced by the local community, as well as contributed to the success of the process of reaching the province to advanced administrative and cultural ranks, through its years of consultations and experiences, whether for its cadres independently, or in cooperation with other cadres and institutions The other province, from the public, private and mixed sectors, did not dissuade the university from exercising its role despite the events witnessed during its young age, represented by the economic victory in 1990, and then the American invasion of Iraq in 2003, through the control of armed groups during the Years (2006-2007) and (2014), this is what the research is trying to highlight with a systematic academic documentary study

The Position Of The Iraqi The Yong Muslim Society Of The Palestininan Of The Year 1929 – 1940

Omer B. Ali; Dhirar Kh. Al.Mahdawi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 209-231

The young Muslim Association is a cultural charity founded with the support of the experienced and the good of the in fluential people of the Baghdadi community in 1928 Its establishment was love of the romelard and starding in the face of Christian missioners. The Assombly began meetirgs at the end of 1928 after a visit of its fonrder mohammed Bahja Al-Athery did it to cario and emphasized the need of Association in cario.The young Muslim Association rad an important role in Arab issues and in particular the Palestinian issue . The Assembly send a number of its members and other communities to Palestinian to praride material support and humanitarian assistance to the palestanian to alleviate their snfferirg. The Association confirmed its role in defereling from the Israeli occupation throngh holdirg many meetings with a number of Arab persoralities and their attenderce at the Islamic coferences.

The Truce of Richmond and the End of First World War (1914-1918)

Ouarti Djamel

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 232-251

The present research paper is an attempt to shed some light on the causes of Germany’s ratification of the Armistice of Rethondes on November 11th, 1918 that ended fighting in World War I. The armistice was signed by the German civilian politician Matthias Erzberger and the Allied Supreme Commander, Marshall Ferdinand Foch in a railroad carriage at Compiègne forest. The paper will clarify the political and military developments during the last two years of the war between Germany and the Allies, mainly with the withdrawal of Bolshevik Russiaafter the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on Marsh 3rd, 1918. The United States of America took part in the war by the side of the Allies in April 1917 after the American President Wilson’s fourteen principles had been outlined on January 14th, 1918 among which the right of people to self-determination. The upheaval of socialism as a new political and economic system brought many conceptual changes mainly in Germany and the end of the German Reich (1871-1918) due to a socialist revolution prior to the war supported by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht. Henceforth, came a republican government and signed f the armistice with the Allies first and then the Treaty of Versailles on June 28th, 1919. Indeed, the signature of the Armistice of Rethondes and the Treaty of Versailles nurtured the German nationalism between 1919 and 1939 paving the way to World War II and the ramification of a second Armistice of Rethondes by France, this time, on June 22nd, 1940 at Compiègne forest in the same railroad carriage where Germany, in 1918) signed the first armistice.

The Role of CIA in the Assassination of Congo Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba

Qais A. Odah

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 252-282

Congo gained its independence from Belgium on June 30, 1960, and a consensual government was formed in which the moderate Joseph Kasavubu became president, and the hard-line nationalist Patrice Lumumba prime minister. The Belgian government redeployed its forces again in the Congolese provinces, under the pretext of preserving the lives of its citizens, and coinciding with these rebellions, Moise Tshombe announced the secession of Katanga province from the Congo. As a result, the Congolese government asked the United Nations to intervene to restore order and remove the Belgian forces from the country. The United Nations established a multinational peacekeeping force, and with the arrival of the United Nations force in the Congo, the Belgian forces began to withdraw from all provinces except for Katanga After that, Patrice Lumumba threatened to expel the United Nations forces and invite the Soviet Union to intervene. This threat raised the concerns of the American administration, and the CIA classified him as Castro or worse, and even after he was ousted from the position of Prime Minister (by a coup led by the Chief of Staff of the Congolese army Joseph Mobutu) and placed under house arrest From the agency's point of view, Lumumba remained a strong political threat in any power struggle in the Congo and decided to get rid of him by various means, including assassination. The agency could not carry out this plan because Lumumba fled from his residence, to be arrested by the forces of Joseph Mobutu, and then transferred to Katanga province, where he was handed over to the father of his enemies, Moise Tshombe, to be killed there

The position of the Lebanese parliament on the Algerian revolution 1954-1958

Qutaiba A. Jasem

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 283-304

The Algerian revolution has received great attention from the members of the Lebanese Parliament who have followed their selection since the announcement of its first statement, and the members of the House expressed their support for it as it aims to achieve independence and liberate Algeria from the French occupation. Note that the discussion dealt with the position of the Lebanese Parliament regarding the Algerian revolution during the period 1954-1958, which is the period that President Chamoun occupied in the presidency of the Lebanese Republic

The role of Baghdad mosquesducation (The Abbasid era as a model)

Ahlam Mohsen Hussein

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 305-335

interest in mosques continued throughout all Islamic eras for the same purposes and upon the establishment of the Abbasid state. The first mosque built in it was the Al-Mansour Mosque built by Abu Jaafar Al-Mansour when the city of Baghdad was established. This mosque was the focus of attention of sheikhs and scholars at that time. Mosques and mosques continued to be centers of public life, especially as centers of education, education and worship. An increase in the political aspect of it. Mosques were not limited to a science of science, but were interested in various sciences and their types of knowledge, and were not limited to religious sciences if they held councils for scholars, writers, poets, doctors and others to study and debate, and it was described by one of the scholars (mosques are councils of honorable ones), as mosques had a great role, especially in The Abbasid Era in developing education and graduating scholars from it and educating young people to the fullest and at the hands of the best scholars and teachers in all religious, secular, scientific and literary sciences. A mosque, which is an exaggerated number, and mosques have reached (12) mosques in which all religious, scientific, social, political and other rituals are practiced. In conclusion, we can conclude that every mosque is a mosque, while not every mosque is a mosque

Narrations of Abu Amro Al-Dany (d. 444 AH) in the book( Ghayat AL-NyHIA FI TABAQAT AL- QURA)

Fatima Zabar Anazan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 336-364

Ibn Al-Jazari is considered one of the most prominent scholars who had a great participation in building the Arab scientific heritage, through his scientific contributions, which have had a wide impact throughout the ages. He fought in it, and so he was known for his wide knowledge and extensive culture, which allowed him to transfer any idea or work from one field to another. Including the narratives of Abu Amr Al-Dany, who does not illuminate it with knowledge and capacity, and took an area from his book through his narratives on which he depended on it, detailing it in terms of its importance in kind and characteristics in a precise scientific manner. His opinions on his translations in general and the narrations of Abu Amr al-Dany in particular, based on that from his knowledge of the terms of wound and modification as a well-known scholar, so he had some opinions on the texts of these narratives in the translations of his book, relying on that as a group of the observer and play See the evidence for this in the translations of his book.

Appeasement by granting fiefs in the Abbasid era (132-656 AH / 749-1258 AD)

Omaima Q. Yehya; Abdulsatar M. Darwish

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 364-376

Appeasement by giving lands is one of the ways of important appeasement in the Abbasid era in general and in the first or second era in particular, especially with the existence of many large lands which was obtained by the Abbasids whether from the lands of fugitives or the new cities they build. And even though these divisions were at the beginning a way to bring loyalists from the abbasid family,the leaders and the poets but ultimately led to considerable economic damage when the Abbasids caliphate lost control over the fate of things , the division were lost when the authority of the state was weakened.

Egyptian society before the Arab Islamic conquest of Egypt through the book Conquest of the Arabs of Egypt by the English orientalist Alfred J. Butler

Fatema S. Shehab; Qahtan A. Bakr

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 377-388

The Islamic conquests and the conquest of cities greeted the interest of orientalists and the Orientalist movement, as Orientalists emerged who made all their concern and specialization in the search for the conquest of cities. Among these, the English orientalist Alfred J. Butler, who was interested in the history of Egypt in all respects, even wrote many books related to the history of Egypt, including his book Conquest of the Arabs to Egypt Which is the subject of the study, and what interests us in this research is his interest in the Egyptian society and its divisions prior to the Islamic conquest of Egypt.

Foreign Expenditures in the Umayyad Dynasty in Andalusia

Osama I. Hammadi; Fwaaz Z. Jazae

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 389-411

Research Summary This study came to shed light on the external expenditures in Andalusia during the era of the Umayyad state. The Umayyad princes spent various expenditures that were the outcome of the balance of the public treasury revenues. These expenditures began in the era of the emirate (138-316 AH / 756-929 CE), but these expenditures increased dramatically in the era of the caliphate (316-422 AH / 929-1031AD) due to the development it witnessed in many aspects, especially the economic side, where the Andalusian gold coins were I found the best proof of this in the Kingdom of Navarre

Historian Badr al-Din bin Habib al-Shami al-Halabi (d. 779 AH) his biography and scientific implications

Sarab M. Saleh; Iftikhar A.Al-Akidi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 412-433

This research explores the study of the life of the author Badr al-Din Bin Habib al-shami al-Halabi (d.779 AH),since he is considered the historian of the eighth century AH, and he lived in an era that the researchers called several labels, including the era of Mamluk and Mamluks and the Ottomans era, and there are those called the era of the Tatar or era Mughal, and the author obtained a scientific and historical position among the successors of this era, he wrote the construction and the secret and the judiciary prosecution and the writing of the dear judgment and the good luck and other religious and administrative functions as well as authorship and teaching.

Bad orientalist perceptions of Islamic history

Abid S. Mohammed; Qahtan A. Bakr

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 434-447

Orientalists ’perceptions of Islamic history differed between neutrality ruled by science and fairness, and between negativity governed by accusations and allegations based on falsehood. Islamic history was one of the first manifestations on which orientalists focused on adopting different interpretations, some of which were based on the racist factor, and some were based on The social or economic factor, so our research entitled (the bad oriental perceptions towards Islamic history) came to address the motives that prompted orientalists to offend Islamic history and their position on the spread of Islam and the Islamic conquests and other motives that we will address in the course of the research

The civilizational role of auditing institutions in the Levant during the Abbasid era (132-656 AH / 750-1258 A.D): Hisbah (As a model)

Liqaa Ghazi Abudl Kareem

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 448-477

The Hisbah system is an important pillar of the administration of the Arab Islamic state, due to its positive impact on many aspects, and thus it is reflected on the state's state and its security.Although the subject of hisbah has been studied by researchers before me and has been studied in various forms, I have relied on doing this scientific work to uncover an important aspect of the history of hisbah in the Levant.In order for the fair researcher to highlight such a topic and appear with the appearance that befits him, he must approach a field full of difficulties and problems, including:The length of the time period covered by the study, as the topic is (the calculation in the Abbasid era), (132 - 656 AH / 750 - 1258 AD), which is a long historical period of time, yet there are two reasons that made me not reduce this period anything:The first reason: Administrative systems, such as the system of calculation, are not complete without studying them in terms of temporal, spatial and civilizational dimensions.The second reason: is the close connection with the first reason; The historical material on the calculation in the Abbasid era, which was contained in the folds of historical, jurisprudential and other sources, varies in the amount that is available to us, from one era to another.

Interaction of Muslim Arabs with the local population in the Maghreb (50-92 AH / 670-710 AD)

Alia M. Jasem; Hammad F. Hammadi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 478-499

The Muslim Arabs began to think seriously to set out for the Maghreb after the conquest of Egypt in the year (20 AH / 640 AD) at the hands of the leader Amr ibn al-Aas, who believed that the departure towards the Maghreb was a necessary step to secure the western borders of Egypt and protect it from the attacks that might be exposed to it. By the Byzantine forces, then controlling all the lands west of Egypt, this idea was the first and essential step in the Arab conquest of the Maghreb. Some of them divided it into seven stages according to the leaders who took up the jihad there, and some of them divided it into two stages, according to the nature of the conquest in each stage. (50-92 AH/670-710AD).During the research, we tried to reveal the most important principles that the Arab field leaders dealt with towards the local population, during the organized conquests and stability operations that began since the second mandate of Uqba bin Nafeh in the year (50 AH / 670 AD), and we will address the topic of research according to the historical sequence of the governors of Morocco.

Transportation Sciences in Bani Hammad State

Ahmed H. Turky; Hamad M. Nasif

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 500-526

This study is concerned with the development of sciences in the Middle Maghreb during the era of the Hammadid state, as the period of the Hammadi rule witnessed a great development in transport sciences that directly contributed to the development of scientific life in the Hammadi society. Knowledge and knowledge students, through their writing of books and literature in various disciplines, as well as exchanging science with the countries of the Islamic Arab East

The concept of Christian monasteries and their divisions

Wedad M. Abdullah; Khaled A. Saleh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 527-541

Monasteries are one of the most important centers of places of worship for the Christians, and they spread widely in Iraq and the Arab countries. These monasteries are distinguished by the presence of monks, nuns, or hermits who live and manage them, and monasteries are often far from cities and crowded places, and they differ in their locations, some of which are at the tops of the mountains and some are on the banks of rivers. The Christians paid great attention to the buildings and architecture of the monasteries, as they paid attention to the annexes that were added to the monasteries to perform the service aspects for visitors to the monasteries, as they were not without guest houses that were visited by visitors, and some rooms that were called cells inhabited by a number of monks, and there is also a church to perform Prayer, in addition to the fact that the monasteries were not without libraries to store the religious, literary and scientific literature, from which the monks drew a lot of information.