Volume 2021, Issue 3 (Vol 18- Issue 2- 2021), Summer 2021, Page 2746-4089

The Libyan - Soviet Rapprochement and Its Impact On The Libyan- American Relations 1969-1985

Samir W.K; Jamal H. Dhuwaib

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 2746-2766
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171428

 Discussing the Relations That linked Libya With Each Of The United States of America on The one hand and the Soviet Union on the other hand, Forms Part of a Picture of International Relations in that Period that had its Repercussions on Libya, Which at the Same Time Formed a Strategic importance for both countries that Lost their Strategic Position On the Mediterranean (Egypt), what is Happening in any country cannot be separated from what is happening in its Regional and International Surroundings, and this Applies to Libya of Course, which Continued to affect and be Affected by the Great Powers' Struggle, Especially the two Great Powers at the time, the United States of America and the Soviet Union. We can say that the Relations between the three Parties are Built on the basis of a Convergence of Interests, so Libya was closer to the Soviets than America, After Gaddafi's actions that were Considered by America against it, Starting with the Evacuation of the American bases on July 11, 1970 through the Nationalization of Oil Companies, and the US Aircraft’s Violation of the Field Libyan air Force in 1972, 1973 and 1980, and the Aggression on the Gulf of Sirte in 1981.

The political, economic and social activity of the Jews of Egypt 1922-1952

Eyad Ayesh Mohammed; abdul sattar jaijer abd

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 2767-2801
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171429

The Jews of Egypt played a great role in the history of Egypt in all aspects, and they had a great activity in the political, economic and social life, because of the important advantages they enjoyed, especially the economic field, as they had wide control over the Egyptian economy, benefiting from their enjoyment of the system of foreign privileges, and what this provides The system is completely or almost completely exempt from taxes, in addition to having large financial resources because they are skilled in this field thanks to their commercial mentality, in addition to their work in professions that Muslims believed were not socially suitable for them, such as weaving, crafting and others. Thus, their good financial situation, through their establishment of banks and insurance companies, helped them to have extensive relations inside Egypt that reached the ruling class , Especially during the time of King Fouad and also during the reign of King Farouk, which contributed to their obtaining many important political positions, as well as their control over most of the economic and social institutions in Egypt during that era. From these perspectives, this research came to study the political, economic and social activity of the Jews of Egypt (1922-1952).

The intellectual impact of the inmates of Mecca in the eleventh century AH / seventeenth century AD according to al-Mohebi (model)

Ferdos A. Kareem

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 2802-2839
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171430

 I chose this topic "The intellectual impact of the inmates of Makkah in the eleventh century on the part of Al-Mohebbi as an example because of its importance and the importance and status of Mecca, which it was and still enjoys among Muslims.  The inmates had a distinctive impact on the scientific activity that Muslims benefited from, represented in the production of many books and literature in various literary, scientific and jurisprudential fields, and they also reached the highest scientific and religious positions, such as the position of fatwas, judiciary, rhetoric, teaching and others.    "
         The residents did not come to Makkah while they were devoid of knowledge and science. On the contrary, they intended it while they had been students of virtuous sheikhs in their country or other Islamic countries. Of those who settled in it. These inmates did not have a single level of education, as they gradually graduated from those who came to study in the scholars of Makkah, and those in it to those distinctive creative groups. Some of these inmates were the test subjects of the honorable person of Mecca or of some of his contemporary scholars, especially those who excelled in the field of medicine. “That there should be some of these tests to highlight the creative aspects in which the residents of Makkah have excelled

Iraq in the American strategy during World War II 1939-1945 AD

Fawaz Hammad Mahmoud

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 2840-2877
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171431

The research aims to highlight the position of Iraq in the American strategy during the Second World War (1939-1945) and the areas and aspects through which the United States of America sought to enter Iraq, taking advantage of the war and economic lost conditions that Iraq was going through, and the outbreak of the May 1941 uprising in it, and the need for its location The geopolitical importance in the war against the Axis powers that tried to strengthen their relations with the nationalist trend represented by Rashid Ali Al-Kilani and the Four Colonels and the role of the United States of America in supporting Britain, to abort the May 1941 uprising, and the return of the British to occupy Iraq again, and turn it into an arena for international conflict during World War II and exploitation The United States of America to establish its interests in this country, which enjoys economic capabilities and a strategic location for the richest of a great power such as the United States of America seeks to control the Middle East region, leaving it to others

Ahmed Kamel Afifi, "His biography, cultural activity and vision in building the Egyptian economy until 1952"Historical study

Sarmad Akidi Fathi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 2878-2898
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171432

This study dealt with the biography of one of the Egyptian national personalities, which contributed an active role in the modern and contemporary history of Egypt, not only from a political point of view, but also on the cultural, economic and intellectual levels, as it has many talents at all levels. However, she did not take her right to research and study in comparison to some other personalities, as she did not place herself beside the figures who rushed to leadership and search for fame and authority, and this made me study this character.

The support of the Kurdish tribes to the Emir (Abu al-Fath Mirza Salar al-Dawla) in his movements to claim the Qajar throne 1906-1912 A.D. A historical analysis of the causes and consequences

Luqman A. Mohammed Khayali

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 2899-2941
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171433

 The rulers of Qajar in Iran were known of their cruelty and tyranny, whether they were kings of Tehran or dynasts in the states. However, their rudeness and cruelty associated with the citizens in another disrepute greediness to gain money and wealth, looting people and exceeding their rights. Perhaps the serious danger of all that is the existence of suspicious links of corrupted Qajar rulers with influential foreigners in the country (Russian and English ) that made Iran a region of conflict between both sides for a long time which required reaching to an agreement to divide areas of influence between them according to the  treaty of 1907.  While the situation in the capital was escalating towards being worse due to the repercussions of the constitutional revolution 1906-1907, and the separating the Iranian people between supporters and opponents of this revolution.  This division occurred as a result of the positions of some of the Qajar princes regarding the revolution and its repercussions. The tribal chiefs in the Kurdish region stood by the Salar Al-Dawla, who had an ambition to be a Shah of Iran, and his movements caused great obstacles for the government and the Iranian court together during the years that followed the constitutional revolution. 

The role of the University of Anbar in the development of society and contemporary challenges (1987-2018)

Ali J. Mohammed; Ahmed R

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 2942-2966
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171434

Anbar University was founded in late December 1987, as part of the general trend towards expanding the circle of higher education and scientific research in Iraq, as well as the need of Anbar province for a university that achieves the country's vision in development and development. In establishing a distinct scientific, cultural and development vision, as well as the values influenced by the local community, as well as contributed to the success of the process of reaching the province to advanced administrative and cultural ranks, through its years of consultations and experiences, whether for its cadres independently, or in cooperation with other cadres and institutions The other province, from the public, private and mixed sectors, did not dissuade the university from exercising its role despite the events witnessed during its young age, represented by the economic victory in 1990, and then the American invasion of Iraq in 2003, through the control of armed groups during the Years (2006-2007) and (2014), this is what the research is trying to highlight with a systematic academic documentary study 

The Position Of The Iraqi The Yong Muslim Society Of The Palestininan Of The Year 1929 – 1940

Omer B. Ali; Dhirar Kh. Al.Mahdawi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 2967-2990
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171436

The young Muslim Association is a cultural charity founded with the support of the experienced and the good of the in fluential people of the Baghdadi community in 1928 Its establishment was love of the romelard and starding in the face of Christian missioners. The Assombly began meetirgs at the end of 1928 after a visit of its fonrder mohammed Bahja Al-Athery did it to cario and emphasized the need of Association in cario.The young Muslim Association rad an important role in Arab issues and in particular the Palestinian issue . The Assembly send a number of its members and other communities to Palestinian to praride material support and humanitarian assistance to the palestanian to alleviate their snfferirg. The Association confirmed its role in defereling from the Israeli occupation throngh holdirg many meetings with a number of Arab persoralities and their attenderce at the Islamic coferences.

The Truce of Richmond and the End of First World War (1914-1918)

Ouarti Djamel

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 2991-3011
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171437

The present research paper is an attempt to shed some light on the causes of Germany’s ratification of the Armistice of Rethondes on November 11th, 1918 that ended fighting in World War I. The armistice was signed by the German civilian politician Matthias Erzberger and the Allied Supreme Commander, Marshall Ferdinand Foch in a railroad carriage at Compiègne forest. The paper will clarify the political and military developments during the last two years of the war between Germany and the Allies, mainly with the withdrawal of Bolshevik Russiaafter the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on Marsh 3rd, 1918. The United States of America took part in the war by the side of the Allies in April 1917 after the American President Wilson’s fourteen principles had been outlined on January 14th, 1918 among which the right of people to self-determination. The upheaval of socialism as a new political and economic system brought many conceptual changes mainly in Germany and the end of the German Reich (1871-1918) due to a socialist revolution prior to the war supported by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht. Henceforth, came a republican government and signed f the armistice with the Allies first and then the Treaty of Versailles on June 28th, 1919. Indeed, the signature of the Armistice of Rethondes and the Treaty of Versailles nurtured the German nationalism between 1919 and 1939 paving the way to World War II and the ramification of a second Armistice of Rethondes by France, this time, on June 22nd, 1940 at Compiègne forest in the same railroad carriage where Germany, in 1918) signed the first armistice.

The Role of CIA in the Assassination of Congo Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba

Qais A. Odah

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3012-3047
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171440

Congo gained its independence from Belgium on June 30, 1960, and a consensual government was formed in which the moderate Joseph Kasavubu became president, and the hard-line nationalist Patrice Lumumba prime minister. The Belgian government redeployed its forces again in the Congolese provinces, under the pretext of preserving the lives of its citizens, and coinciding with these rebellions, Moise Tshombe announced the secession of Katanga province from the Congo. As a result, the Congolese government asked the United Nations to intervene to restore order and remove the Belgian forces from the country. The United Nations established a multinational peacekeeping force, and with the arrival of the United Nations force in the Congo, the Belgian forces began to withdraw from all provinces except for Katanga After that, Patrice Lumumba threatened to expel the United Nations forces and invite the Soviet Union to intervene. This threat raised the concerns of the American administration, and the CIA classified him as Castro or worse, and even after he was ousted from the position of Prime Minister (by a coup led by the Chief of Staff of the Congolese army Joseph Mobutu) and placed under house arrest From the agency's point of view, Lumumba remained a strong political threat in any power struggle in the Congo and decided to get rid of him by various means, including assassination. The agency could not carry out this plan because Lumumba fled from his residence, to be arrested by the forces of Joseph Mobutu, and then transferred to Katanga province, where he was handed over to the father of his enemies, Moise Tshombe, to be killed there

The position of the Lebanese parliament on the Algerian revolution 1954-1958

Qutaiba A. Jasem

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3048-3071
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171441

The Algerian revolution has received great attention from the members of the Lebanese Parliament who have followed their selection since the announcement of its first statement, and the members of the House expressed their support for it as it aims to achieve independence and liberate Algeria from the French occupation. Note that the discussion dealt with the position of the Lebanese Parliament regarding the Algerian revolution during the period 1954-1958, which is the period that President Chamoun occupied in the presidency of the Lebanese Republic

The role of Baghdad mosquesducation (The Abbasid era as a model)

Ahlam Mohsen Hussein

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3072-3105
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171442

interest in mosques continued throughout all Islamic eras for the same purposes and upon the establishment of the Abbasid state. The first mosque built in it was the Al-Mansour Mosque built by Abu Jaafar Al-Mansour when the city of Baghdad was established. This mosque was the focus of attention of sheikhs and scholars at that time. Mosques and mosques continued to be centers of public life, especially as centers of education, education and worship. An increase in the political aspect of it. Mosques were not limited to a science of science, but were interested in various sciences and their types of knowledge, and were not limited to religious sciences if they held councils for scholars, writers, poets, doctors and others to study and debate, and it was described by one of the scholars (mosques are councils of honorable ones), as mosques had a great role, especially in The Abbasid Era in developing education and graduating scholars from it and educating young people to the fullest and at the hands of the best scholars and teachers in all religious, secular, scientific and literary sciences. A mosque, which is an exaggerated number, and mosques have reached (12) mosques in which all religious, scientific, social, political and other rituals are practiced. In conclusion, we can conclude that every mosque is a mosque, while not every mosque is a mosque

Narrations of Abu Amro Al-Dany (d. 444 AH) in the book( Ghayat AL-NyHIA FI TABAQAT AL- QURA)

Fatima Zabar Anazan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3106-3137
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171443

Ibn Al-Jazari is considered one of the most prominent scholars who had a great participation in building the Arab scientific heritage, through his scientific contributions, which have had a wide impact throughout the ages. He fought in it, and so he was known for his wide knowledge and extensive culture, which allowed him to transfer any idea or work from one field to another. Including the narratives of Abu Amr Al-Dany, who does not illuminate it with knowledge and capacity, and took an area from his book through his narratives on which he depended on it, detailing it in terms of its importance in kind and characteristics in a precise scientific manner. His opinions on his translations in general and the narrations of Abu Amr al-Dany in particular, based on that from his knowledge of the terms of wound and modification as a well-known scholar, so he had some opinions on the texts of these narratives in the translations of his book, relying on that as a group of the observer and play See the evidence for this in the translations of his book.

Appeasement by granting fiefs in the Abbasid era (132-656 AH / 749-1258 AD)

Omaima Q. Yehya; Abdulsatar M. Darwish

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3138-3151
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171444

Appeasement by giving lands is one of the ways of important appeasement in the Abbasid era in general and in the first or second era in particular, especially with the existence of many large lands which was obtained by the Abbasids whether from the lands of fugitives or the new cities they build. And even though these divisions were at the beginning a way to bring loyalists from the abbasid family,the leaders and the poets but ultimately led to considerable economic damage when the Abbasids caliphate lost control over the fate of things , the division were lost when the authority of the state was weakened.

Egyptian society before the Arab Islamic conquest of Egypt through the book Conquest of the Arabs of Egypt by the English orientalist Alfred J. Butler

Fatema S. Shehab; Qahtan A. Bakr

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3152-3165
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171446

The Islamic conquests and the conquest of cities greeted the interest of orientalists and the Orientalist movement, as Orientalists emerged who made all their concern and specialization in the search for the conquest of cities. Among these, the English orientalist Alfred J. Butler, who was interested in the history of Egypt in all respects, even wrote many books related to the history of Egypt, including his book Conquest of the Arabs to Egypt Which is the subject of the study, and what interests us in this research is his interest in the Egyptian society and its divisions prior to the Islamic conquest of Egypt.

Foreign Expenditures in the Umayyad Dynasty in Andalusia

Osama I. Hammadi; Fwaaz Z. Jazae

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3166-3192
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171447

Research Summary This study came to shed light on the external expenditures in Andalusia during the era of the Umayyad state. The Umayyad princes spent various expenditures that were the outcome of the balance of the public treasury revenues. These expenditures began in the era of the emirate (138-316 AH / 756-929 CE), but these expenditures increased dramatically in the era of the caliphate (316-422 AH / 929-1031AD) due to the development it witnessed in many aspects, especially the economic side, where the Andalusian gold coins were I found the best proof of this in the Kingdom of Navarre

Historian Badr al-Din bin Habib al-Shami al-Halabi (d. 779 AH) his biography and scientific implications

Sarab M. Saleh; Iftikhar A.Al-Akidi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3193-3217
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171449

This research explores the study of the life of the author Badr al-Din Bin Habib al-shami al-Halabi (d.779 AH),since he is considered the historian of the eighth century AH, and he lived in an era that the researchers called several labels, including the era of Mamluk and Mamluks and the Ottomans era, and there are those called the era of the Tatar or era Mughal, and the author obtained a scientific and historical position among the successors of this era, he wrote the construction and the secret and the judiciary prosecution and the writing of the dear judgment and the good luck and other religious and administrative functions as well as authorship and teaching.

Bad orientalist perceptions of Islamic history

Abid S. Mohammed; Qahtan A. Bakr

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3218-3233
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171451

Orientalists ’perceptions of Islamic history differed between neutrality ruled by science and fairness, and between negativity governed by accusations and allegations based on falsehood. Islamic history was one of the first manifestations on which orientalists focused on adopting different interpretations, some of which were based on the racist factor, and some were based on The social or economic factor, so our research entitled (the bad oriental perceptions towards Islamic history) came to address the motives that prompted orientalists to offend Islamic history and their position on the spread of Islam and the Islamic conquests and other motives that we will address in the course of the research

The civilizational role of auditing institutions in the Levant during the Abbasid era (132-656 AH / 750-1258 A.D): Hisbah (As a model)

Liqaa Ghazi Abudl Kareem

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3234-3266
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171453

The Hisbah system is an important pillar of the administration of the Arab Islamic state, due to its positive impact on many aspects, and thus it is reflected on the state's state and its security.Although the subject of hisbah has been studied by researchers before me and has been studied in various forms, I have relied on doing this scientific work to uncover an important aspect of the history of hisbah in the Levant.In order for the fair researcher to highlight such a topic and appear with the appearance that befits him, he must approach a field full of difficulties and problems, including:The length of the time period covered by the study, as the topic is (the calculation in the Abbasid era), (132 - 656 AH / 750 - 1258 AD), which is a long historical period of time, yet there are two reasons that made me not reduce this period anything:The first reason: Administrative systems, such as the system of calculation, are not complete without studying them in terms of temporal, spatial and civilizational dimensions.The second reason: is the close connection with the first reason; The historical material on the calculation in the Abbasid era, which was contained in the folds of historical, jurisprudential and other sources, varies in the amount that is available to us, from one era to another.

Interaction of Muslim Arabs with the local population in the Maghreb (50-92 AH / 670-710 AD)

Alia M. Jasem; Hammad F. Hammadi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3267-3291
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171455

The Muslim Arabs began to think seriously to set out for the Maghreb after the conquest of Egypt in the year (20 AH / 640 AD) at the hands of the leader Amr ibn al-Aas, who believed that the departure towards the Maghreb was a necessary step to secure the western borders of Egypt and protect it from the attacks that might be exposed to it. By the Byzantine forces, then controlling all the lands west of Egypt, this idea was the first and essential step in the Arab conquest of the Maghreb. Some of them divided it into seven stages according to the leaders who took up the jihad there, and some of them divided it into two stages, according to the nature of the conquest in each stage. (50-92 AH/670-710AD).During the research, we tried to reveal the most important principles that the Arab field leaders dealt with towards the local population, during the organized conquests and stability operations that began since the second mandate of Uqba bin Nafeh in the year (50 AH / 670 AD), and we will address the topic of research according to the historical sequence of the governors of Morocco.

Transportation Sciences in Bani Hammad State

Ahmed H. Turky; Hamad M. Nasif

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3292-3322
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171458

This study is concerned with the development of sciences in the Middle Maghreb during the era of the Hammadid state, as the period of the Hammadi rule witnessed a great development in transport sciences that directly contributed to the development of scientific life in the Hammadi society. Knowledge and knowledge students, through their writing of books and literature in various disciplines, as well as exchanging science with the countries of the Islamic Arab East

The concept of Christian monasteries and their divisions

Wedad M. Abdullah; Khaled A. Saleh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3323-3339
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171460

Monasteries are one of the most important centers of places of worship for the Christians, and they spread widely in Iraq and the Arab countries. These monasteries are distinguished by the presence of monks, nuns, or hermits who live and manage them, and monasteries are often far from cities and crowded places, and they differ in their locations, some of which are at the tops of the mountains and some are on the banks of rivers. The Christians paid great attention to the buildings and architecture of the monasteries, as they paid attention to the annexes that were added to the monasteries to perform the service aspects for visitors to the monasteries, as they were not without guest houses that were visited by visitors, and some rooms that were called cells inhabited by a number of monks, and there is also a church to perform Prayer, in addition to the fact that the monasteries were not without libraries to store the religious, literary and scientific literature, from which the monks drew a lot of information.

The commercial role of women in the first Abbasid era

Abeer H. Al.fahdaei; Zaban K. Nawaf

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3340-3357
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171627

Women had a noticeable role in the practice of trade during this era, but it was not at the level of the role of men in trade, as senior statesmen were ministers and princes originally from prestigious commercial houses, as well as the practice of scholars and jurists to trade largely and there are many examples of that, and the reason This is due to the urge of Islam to trade, as the woman practiced the role of trade indirectly, as she made her way in the handicraft of the yarn craft, and it was one of the most trades that women practiced in this era, because it was one of the crafts, and there are many models mentioned in the search for women who They possessed money and gold, especially the women of the caliphs, to name a few. The research mentioned Mrs. Bamboo, wife of the Caliph al-Mahdi.Women participated in the trade in livestock and in the slave trade, and they have a role in building bridges, arches and digging wells to secure drinking water, charitable works and writing and calligraphy.

Abdul Aziz Al-Douri and his approach for writing history

Alaa Nafi Jassim

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3358-3399
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171626

Professor Abdul Aziz al-Douri is considered one of the most prominent thinkers who studied history, wrote it, or rewrote it. The historical writing of al-Douri was a progressive goal that advances the Arab nation and liberates it from backwardness to occupy a prominent position among the developed nations.Dr. Abdulaziz views history as an important factor in clarifying identity and defining its reality, and it is considered a fundamental issue for the Arab nation. Moreover, our historian has remained faithful to national thought, searching for its historical roots in the Arab economy and society.Since Al-Douri is one of the pioneers of Iraqi and Arab historians in modern and contemporary history, it became necessary to study his approach to writing history. The research was divided into his life, the positions he held, his scientific activities, his membership in scientific institutions, his books and his death, as well as his reading of history, his criticism of Western approaches, and his approach in Writing history through his two books - Introduction to the History of the Origin of Islam and the Book of the Origins of the Science of History for the Ara

The Separation Policy at the Bowayheans Princes Towards their Ministers 334-777 H. / 945-1055 A.D

Bashir Sabah Awad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3400-3417
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171628

The interest in the Administrative system in the Islamic Arab State is of so important matter. This study entitled ( The Separation Policy at the Bowayheans Princes Towards their Ministers 334-777 H. / 945-1055 A.D.) sheds light on the nature of that policy which was followed by Bowayheans towards their princes under the weakness of the power of the State following to the control of the external powers on it and seizing it which led to the death of many ministers after separating them of their posts and bringing them to the jails as well as confiscating their funds and properties. Some of them were assassinated in an ambiguous way, in addition to appointing two ministers for the Bowayhi prince in the same time which caused many of plots to overthrow the opponents that confused largely the institutions of the Islamic Arab State.

Basalt Buried scenes in Iraqi museum

Saadi Ibrahim Al Darraji

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3418-3443
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171629

The study of Buried scenes considers one of the important fields that the professors take care in the field of heritage, history and arts because what it had contained of scientific data especially in the field of studying the history and developed of Arabic graphs This paper summarizes the study of six scenes , that one of them is made from , but others made from black Basalt stones that had kept in Iraqi museum , the matter encourages the researcher to document it by scientific study to be serial Arabic scenes written by Kufi manuscript in Islamic world . All Basalt examples appears non organized and written in dry kufi and what make it specialize is its neglected letters and the written is soft because of softness of stones. the scripts of fifth scenes are similar , thus, they came back to 6th century or the beginning of 7th one, in addition to the similarity of stones and the unity of texts as well as the similarity of styles

The issue of imports of temple properties in the peninsula in the first millennium BC (sacrifices and vows)

Anmar M. Hindi; Ziyad O. Sewedan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3444-3464
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171644

The issue of imports of temple properties in the peninsula in the first millennium BC (sacrifices and vows) is one of the important topics in the history of the ancient East in general and the history of the Arabian Peninsula in particular, as this institution played a major role in managing the affairs of economic life, within decisions related to the aspect Since its foundation to organize the revenue collection process, and because the temple possesses various resources, as priests played a major role in organizing and managing this money in line with religious thought in the Arabian Peninsula and in line with their personal inclinations and their acquisition of a large amount of these properties, and thus a social class emerged. A new one known as (the religious class).

The philosophy of civilization is applied to the civilization of Yemen Section two - architecture (civil architecture)

Anmar N. Abdullatif

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3465-3508
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171647

On of the bases of civilization is architecture; the philosophy of applying architecture on the ground is considered the base of it's growth. Yemen had an important role in building a civilization of its own, it's main features were decided by two factors. The first is water and the ability to provide it by building irrigation facilities like dams, canals and small irrigation ducts. The second is architecture all this system to write a wonderful civilised philosophy, its outcome was a distinguished civilised role which lasted long era in the history of old Yemen, that a lot of its features are still standing and proving the greatness of Yemen civilization and the depth of its philosophy

Estimation of the surface water runoff of the Wadi Al-Qaim basin in the western Iraqi plateau

Mash'al Mahmood Fayaad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3509-3526
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171650

The research aims to estimate the amount of surface runoff in the Wadi Al-Qaim basin depend on the rain falls and the morphometric characteristics of the basin, using the formulas designed by the US Soil Conservation Service (SCS-CN). So is the Berkeley method for estimating the volume of runoff. The search area (Wadi al-Qaim Basin) is located in the western Iraqi plateau within the Anbar Governorate. The valley ends in the Euphrates River at the city of Al-Qaim. It is located between latitudes (34° 9´ 55̋) and (34° 21´ 55̋) north, and longitudes (41° 7´ 10̋) and (41° 21´ 20̋ ) east. The depth of surface runoff for the Wadi Al-Qaim basin was calculated for several years from 2010 to 2019 using the SCS-CN equation depending on the characteristics of the land cover, the hydrological properties of the soil and the amount of rain fall. At the Rutbah station, the minimum runoff depth was 5.97 mm on 3/26/2010, depending on the rainfall amounting to 25 mm. As for the volume of runoff, and for the period between 2010 and 2019, the highest amount was 5239630 m³ on 19/10/2018 and the lowest amount was 1431606m³ on 26/3/2010

The Historical Development of the Concept of Areal in Geography

Salar A. Khedher

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3527-3554
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171652

Chorology - Region - Landschaft - Landscape - Geosphere - Compage, all of these terms represent the historical stages of the development of concepts of geographical Areal. In this research, which is within the field of geographic thought, discussing these terms and the geographers' view of them. In order to achieve the objectives of the research, the topic of the research was divided into two parts. The first section dealt with the historical stages of the development of the concept of geographical Areal, which are each of the territory, the landscape and the landscape, down to the compage and the term space geography. The second section dealt with the study, analysis and discussion of the concept of the region throughout history in terms of definition, the topics of the region, the defects of the region, the borders of the geographical region, and the size of the geographical region.

Evaluating the efficiency of the central business district in Ramadi city and determining the paths for its spatial expansion

Omer J. Badda; Meshal F. Ghadhib

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3574-3596
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171655

He dealt with the study (the central business district in the city of Ramadi), as it is one of the important geographical studies that highlights its role in providing the city with life and vitality, and because it is the economic nucleus of each city. The study of the central business district in the city of Ramadi aims to show its commercial personality and its historical and cultural importance, and to know the changes that have occurred to it and the problems it suffers in it. The study is in a state of development since the city of Ramadi was established in 1869 AD until the present time, as its area has expanded to reach (39.27) hectares after it was in 1950 AD

Problems of developing land uses in the Abu Flis area

Younus H. Oleiwi Al-Dulaimi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3597-3615
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171657

The research dealt with land uses in the Abu( Flis area) with a focus on the most important problems that hinder their development through the field study, to propose remedial alternatives that would advance the development of the reality of the region, according to the opinions of experts in this field after evaluating them according to planning criteria, from which the appropriate alternative was chosen (Partial development), to present it to the stakeholders to take the appropriate decision to ensure its development, then the research concluded with the important conclusions and recommendations.

Spatial variation in the causes of the illiteracy phenomenon according to the environment in Anbar Province

Ayad Mohammad Makhlef Al- Adwan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3616-3638
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171658

This study investigates with the causes of the phenomenon of illiteracy in Anbar Governorate from Iraq who are ten years old or more in the year 2020، whose data were obtained through a field survey. Therefore، the aim of the research was to find out the reasons that led to the spread of the phenomenon of illiteracy in Anbar Governorate and its geographical distribution،and the research reached several Results of the causes that contributed to the spread of illiteracy، which are the social causes،which accounted for two-thirds of the total percentage and the economic reasons،and its percentage was approximately one-fourth of the percentages of the total causes and various other causes that constituted one-tenth of the percentages of the total cause

A geo-political analysis of the role of women in positions of power and decision-making

Shaima’a Mohammed Jawad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3639-3655
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171659

This research demonstrates the historical progression of the women’s rights in society, and how women started having their voice heard by going out to the streets, parading and starting the Suffragette movement in the USA in 1848. The movement moved later to Europe and kept calling for greater freedoms until the right of vote was granted, in addition to many key roles in the governments that women play today. The paper shows also the role of the Arabic women in the suffragette movement, the wide steps they took to prove their presence in the three main branches of authority; legislative, executive, and judicial, and how much more work they need to do to enhance and strengthen their performance in the future governments.

Visual pollution in Fallujah city

Salah Adnan Mejawl Al.Dulaimi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3656-3679
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171660

The study examines examining the problem of visual pollution in the city of Fallujah with an academic vision, in seeking to analyze its manifestations, causes and health effects within the city, whether in buildings, markets or streets, and the accumulation of garbage and solid waste in it, as it is expected that the problem of visual pollution will take an effective dimension that increases the depth of problems The urban environment for the city of Fallujah, as it is one of the modern indicators for assessing the urban environment.

The efficiency of health services in Al-Baghdadi city

Maan M. Mohammd Shareef

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3680-3693
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171661

The health services are of great importance in societies for their direct contact with the lives of the population by providing a healthy environment suitable for them and working on the development of the society of all directions, and this requires that the process of the distributing of health services appropriately with the population numbers because the increase in size of the population generates great pressure on Services and reduce the efficiency of their performance, so you must be the distribution of these services are efficient and commensurate with the reality of the city. The aim of this study is to look for of competency of this service in AL_Baghdadi city in a year 2019 .Through investigating its locative circulation then showing its effective criteria ,when comparting with the local criterion as a degree of approval . Also it shows its deficiency when there is a laclcage of its employees and bad location , beside the absides the absence of emergent hospital to treat the critical cases , above all the disapproval of many people of being so far from these healthy service.

Early maladaptive schemas for high school students

Thaer A.K M. T; Yasser K.

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3694-3734
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171662

The current research problem has been identified in the following questions:- Is there a early maladaptive schemas For high school students ?- What is the role of some variables in determining early maladaptive schemas?The aim of the current research is to identify:3 - early maladaptive schemas For high school students.The researcher adopted the relational descriptive approach in his research, and the research sample consisted of (374) male and female students from high school students in the city of Ramadi for the academic year 2019-2020. The sample was chosen according to Stephen Thompson's equation.also adopted a measure of the early non-adaptive charts of (Jeffrey Young) the short form (YSQ-S1) consisting of (5) fields with (75) paragraphs, with five alternatives: (Strongly agree, totally agree, somewhat agree, not completely agree, Strongly disagree).After completing the application of the two scales on the individuals of the sample under the supervision of the researcher, the results showed:1 - Lack of early maladaptive schemas For high school students , because the average variable for early adaptations is less than the level of statistical significance.2 - There were no statistically significant differences between the average students high school on the scale of the early non-adaptive scales in variable (male, female), and the branch (scientific, literary)

Internet addiction (Facebook as a model) and its relationship to family disintegration among Tikrit University students

Zakaria Abdel Ahmed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3735-3772
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171663

Research summary: The current research aims to:1- Knowing the level of addiction to Facebook among university students2- Identify the differences in addiction to Facebook according to the specialty variable (scientific) (human)3- Knowing the level of family disintegration among university students4- Knowing the correlation between Facebook addiction and family disintegration among university students.For the purpose of achieving the above goals, the researcher built the two measures of addiction to Facebook, family disintegration, by following the necessary scientific procedures. The researcher chose a random stratified sample of university students, which is the (second) and (third) grade, and the researcher used the appropriate statistical means to build the two scales and extract the results from them. . The T-value, QA square, percentage, T-test for one sample, T-test for two independent samples, Pearson correlation coefficient, and the following results were shown:

Habits of mind among graduate students

Mohammad K. R; Safi A. Saleh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3773-3804
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171664

The level of mental habits of postgraduate students.. The significance of the differences in the habits of the mind according to the variables of the type (male, female), specialization (scientific, humanistic) among postgraduate students.The researcher has adopted the relational descriptive approach in his research. The sample of the research consists of (276) male and female students from postgraduate students at Anbar University for the academic year 2019-2020, and the sample was chosen according to the Stephen Thompson equation.The researcher depends on the scale of mental habits of Costa and Kallick (2000). It consists of (16) mental habits, with (96) items with three alternatives (always, sometimes, rarely).After completing the application of the two measures on the participants of the sample under the supervision of the researcher, the results show:. The presence of habits of the mind of postgraduate students at a high level.. There is no statistically significant difference according to the gender variable (male, female) in the scale of habits of mind.-There is a statistically significant difference according to the variable of specialization (scientific and human) in the scale of mental habits in the following habits: (thinking flexibly, thinking about thinking, seeking for accuracy, applying previous knowledge in new situations, thinking and communicating clearly and precisely, responding with astonishment and fear, having responsible risks, finding humor) for the benefit of scientific specialization.

Constructing the measurement of social solidarity among students in the preparatory stage

Ahmed A. Salim; Ahmed W. H. Al- Taryya

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3805-3834
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171665

The aim of the research is to create a measure of social solidarity among middle school students . The research sample consisted of (320) students from grades four and five in its branches (scientific and literary) from middle schools in the city of Mosul, the center of Ninawa Governorate. To achieve the goal of the research, the two researchers constructing the scale of social solidarity that In its final form, it consists of (36) paragraphs with (4) alternatives after verification of the psychometric properties of apparent validity and construct validity, as well as the consistency extracted by the methods of retesting and Alf Cronbach of (80.0) (83.0) respectively. The data were treated statistically using (the T-test for two independent samples, the Pearson correlation coefficient, the Fakronbach equation). The purpose of the research was verified through the steps of constructing the social solidarity scale that were mentioned above within the research procedures, and based on that, a set of conclusions, recommendations and proposals were determined.

Measuring the CuIturaI intIIigence of university Students

Doaa S. Jasim; Safaa H. Turki AI-Rashed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3835-3864
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171666

The research aims at recognizing cultural intelligence for university students, in order to achieve the the goals of the research, the researchers constructed a tool for measuring the cultural intelligence that consisted of (45) items distributed in three areas (15) items for the cognitive field, (15) items for the emotional field and (15) items for the behavioral field. The psychometric properties of the scale have been calculated by applying the scale to a sample consisting of (300) male and female university students. The cultural intelligence scale stability has reached by the half- split method (0.82) and Al- Fakir and Nabakh's equation (0.88). After that the scale was applied to a sample consisting of (150) male and female students for the purpose of calculating the results of the research and it has been shown that university students have a high cultural intelligence level with a T-value of (16.83). There are no statistical significant differences according to the demographic variables. The researchers recommended increasing the communication opportunities between the university students and the other universities in order to be acquainted with other cultures.The researchers also suggested conducting a study to recognize the relationship between the cultural intelligence and the psychological adjustment

Mindfulness among Male Teachers of Preparatory Schools and Female Teachers

Shaymaa Zaidan Khalaf; Ammar Awadh Frahan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3865-3892
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171757

The aim of the research is to identify the Mindfulness among, Male Teachers of Preparatory Schools and Female Teachers and differences in Mindfulness depending on the type gender variable. The researchers relied on the descriptive approach in a research, the research sample consisted of (300) teachers' male and female who were withdrawn from the Anbar Governorate Education Directorate from three districts (Ramadi, Habbaniyah, Fallujah) for the academic year (2019-2020). The researchers built a Mindfulness scale that was made up of (39) items, after the validity and reliability coefficients were extracted for it. Which included three domains, which is the intention, which consists of (12) items. Attention, which consists of (13) items, and the direction which consists of (14) items, and after applying items of scale to the research sample, the results showed the following:1-The research sample has a normal level of Mindfulness.2-There is an effect of gender on the high level of Mindfulness, in favor of males.


Cognitive structures and their relationship to self-regard among university students

Adel H. Abd; Fuad M. Freh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3893-3935
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171758

The study aims at identify the level of both the cognitive structures, and the level of self-regard of the university students. It also aimed to identify the significant differences in cognitive structures and self-regard according to some demographic variables (gender, specialization, and academic stage), and finally to investigate the relationship between to the main variables (cognitive structures and self-regard) among the university students. The researchers adopted the relational descriptive approach. The sample consisted of (600) male and female from the students of University of Anbar for the academic year (2019-2020). To achieve the aims of the study, the researchers prepared a scale of cognitive structures, consisted of (46 items) and (6) subscales. For the self-regard scale, the researchers adopted Khamass scale (2012), which was based on the theory of "Carl Rogers". The scale consisted of (26) items. After the researchers verified the psychometric characteristics of the two scales, the data were analysed. The results indicated that university students have above the average level of both cognitive structures and self-regard. The results also showed that there are no statistically significant differences in the cognitive structures and self-regard according to the three demographic variables (gender, specialization, and academic stage). The results also showed that there is a positive significant correlation between cognitive structures and self-regard.


Evaluation of the experience of teaching in English in distinguished schools

Thikra Abdul.H .Abdul Latef

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3936-3959
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171759

The Ministry of Education is making distinguished efforts for the purpose of providing educational supplies and preparing schools and educational institutions to keep pace with scientific and knowledge development. Schools for the Excellence occupy a great interest among these institutions because of their role in absorbing the outstanding students. The Ministry of Education has in recent years been interested in making many amendments to the curricula, and the schools of the distinguished had a share of that, as it was done and starting from the academic year (2016-2017). Changing the curricula of scientific lessons to be in the English language instead of the Arabic language, and despite the difficulties associated with these curricula, the demand for applying to the distinguished schools is still continuing, which made the researcher work on a study aimed at evaluating the experience of teaching in English in the distinguished schools. This study was conducted on the General Directorate of Kirkuk Education and the research community consisted of teachers and teachers of the distinguished schools in Kirkuk Governorate Center for the academic year 2019-2020 and the sample consisted of 72 Administrator and teacher, and the researcher turned to two ways; the individual and group interview and the questionnaire as the study tools. The questionnaire consisted of 20 items, and the researcher has worked to find the reliability and validity factor for it. The researcher used a number of statistical means to reach to current the results, the most prominent one was the Ka2 square. The intensity degree in arriving to the results as the researcher has reached to a number of recommendations and proposals, which will be presented at the end of the research.


The extent of awareness of mathematics teachers for the sixth grade of primary school about the basic skills system for effective teaching and the difficulties of learning mathematics from their point of view in the light of (some variables)

Ashwaq T. Shaher

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3960-3992
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171760

The research aims to identify the extent of mathematics teachers’ awareness of the elementary stage of the effective teaching skills system and the difficulties of learning mathematics in light of some variables to achieve the goal of the research, the following questions and hypotheses were put forward:-What is the extent of mathematics teachers' awareness of effective teaching skills?-Are there statistically significant differences (0,05) between teachers' responses in their extent awareness of effective teaching skills that attributable to academic qualification?-Are there statistically significant differences ( 0,05) between teachers' responses in their extent awareness of effective teaching skills that attributable to years of service?-What are the difficulties in learning mathematics for the sixth grade of primary school?The research was limited to math teachers for the sixth grade of elementary schools affiliated with the education of first karkh, because females are the predominant class of mathematics teachers for the academic year (2020-2021) the research sample consisted of 77 teachers distributed by 35 with a bachelor’s degree and 42 with a diploma, the research tools consisted of two questionnaires, the first questionnaire containing two parts, the first for teacher skills and the second for learner skills and an open questionnaire to identify mathematics learning difficulties for the teacher and the learner from the preparation of the researcher


Training needs for middle school principals in Baghdad from the viewpoint of educational supervisors

Mohammed S. Taresh Al.Boyosef

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 3993-4017
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171762

The aim of the research was to identify the training needs of the middle school principals in Baghdad from the point of view of the educational supervisors. The researcher used the analytical descriptive approach. In order to achieve the objectives of the research, a questionnaire was used as a tool for collecting the necessary data. The questionnaire included 40 paragraphs divided into two areas: Human relations). The study society consisted of all the principals of 90 schools. The questionnaire data were analyzed to obtain the results using the statistical analysis program (SPSS). The statistical treatments were used, such as percentage, relative weight, Kronbach test, Pearson correlation, T test.The research reached several results, the most important of which are: 1_ that the respondents showed a high degree of approval with a relative weight (88%) requiring training needs for middle school principals. 2 - There are no significant statistical differences between males and females according to gender variable.


The effect of the RISK program on the achievement and development of critical thinking among literary fifth students in the subject of rhetoric and application

Mohammed M. T; Antar A. G; Jasem H. Fahad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 4018-4056
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171765

The study aimed to investigate the impact of the RISK program on developing critical thinking among literary fifth students in the subject of rhetoric and application. , by (25) students for the experimental group, and (25) students for the control group, and to achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher prepared the study requirements and tools by defining the scientific material, and formulating (90) behavioral objectives. (12) a teaching plan for the two groups, and the researchers built the research tools that were represented by an achievement test consisting of (50) items of a multiple-choice type with four alternatives. Critical thinking skills identified by Watson - Claser. The results showed a statistically significant difference at the significance level (α ≥ 0.05) between the average of the two study groups (experimental and control) in favor of the experimental group that was taught according to the RISK program in the achievement test and the critical thinking test


The displacement crisis and its repercussions on the values of citizenship after 2014

Mohammed B. Mahdi; Nabil J. Mohammed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 3, Pages 4057-4089
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171766

The study is based on the study mainly on the basis of the citizenship schedule and knowing the most important social implications of weak citizenship.The study reached a set of results, including:1_ A society that suffers from crises in which the values of citizenship are weak. 2_ The frequent displacement reinforced the desire to emigrate3_There is a weakness in the values of citizenship and for the post-displacement period, as a result of the deterioration of the economic level, which results in poverty, unemployment, and an uncertain future.