Volume 2021, Issue 4, Spring 2021


The urban developments witnessed by the Fustat Mosque from its foundation until the end of the Umayyad era

Hammad F. Hammadi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 1-17

Ezz is no doubt that the mosque importance and great status in Islam has praised Allah in the Holy Qur'an to the status of the mosque and workers Bamarth, said the Almighty: {In houses of God to raise and stating his name swim to him the mornings and afternoons (36) men whom neither trade nor A sale on the remembrance of God and establishing prayer and giving zakat They fear a day when hearts will be overturned. {The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: 37} Therefore, after the conquest of Egypt in the year 21 AH, the leader Amr ibn al-Aas began planning the city of Fustat, to be a military base for the launch of military operations, and a residence for the fighting soldiers. The tribes, and a large group of the Companions, may God be pleased with them, stood to determine its qiblah. Its length was fifty cubits by thirty cubits, then increases took place over its area. It was built of brick or mud. Al-Atiq, in addition to the name by which it was known since its foundation in the Amr Ibn Al-Aas Mosque, and the mosque was established for Muslims to perform Friday prayers and the five daily prayers, and lessons and guidance sessions, jurisprudence, hadith, Quranic sciences and literature were held there, in addition to being the place where the governor meets people In order to convey what he wants to convey, he has witnessed several urban developments since its foundation until the end of the Umayyad era, and I will address them with careful research after God’s success, relying on what I have available from sources and references dated in this regard

Pages from the history of the Apostolic State for the period (842 AH to 858 AH) through the Manuscript of the History of the Mukashik (904 AH)

Nour S. Nasser; Iftikhar A.Rajab

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 18-41

The research dealt with the political conditions of Yemen in an important era in the history of the Apostolic State (626 AH - 858 AH), which was marked by the appearance of features of weakness and collapse in which slaves soon dominated the state administration because of the weakness of kings and internal conflicts between its sons. The research began with the death of the apparent Apostolic King (831 AH - 842 AH), and his son, the Honorable King, assumed power until the year 858 AH, which ends with the ouster of the Apostolic King Masoud himself from the king, and Banu Taher assumed rule of the country. The research included two parts, the first study covered the definition of the manuscript, its percentage, the writer's sources, style, and method of investigation. The second section included the investigated text.

Notes on Mahmud of Ghazna,Artcial by the great British Orientalist De Lacy O'Leary

Zuhair Yousif Oleiwi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 42-69

Studying the lives of the greats and heroes of history has become a vital and urgent necessity in the study of history because it is one of the main factors in knowing the history of the nation in which that Islamic hero grew up, and at the same time it reflects the nature of history for the hero and the role he played in the history of that nation. Mahmud of Ghazna is one of the most important heroes of Islamic history for whom history has recorded a record of great achievements written in history and has attracted the attention of most researchers. It is a scientific assessment of its historical status from a Western point of view.

The political reasons and motives for the phenomenon of excluding scholars in the Arab Islamic state in the abbasid era

Hind F. Saleh; Siham J. Jassim

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 70-86

Despite the great position that the scholars enjoyed in the Arab Islamic state, especially in the Abbasid era, where the successors of this state were interested in science and scholars, and Islamic culture reached its peak in this era, but many scholars were subjected to exclusion and persecution in the Abbasid era, and the motives that were many It led to their exclusion, and political motives were one of the most important motives that led to the exclusion of scholars. The decisions to exclude the scholars varied between right and wrong, and in the effects that resulted from it, whether positive or negative. The wrong decisions were many when compared to the positive ones. The Arab Islamic state lost many scholars as a result of political exclusion, as well as the loss of administrative competencies that were supposed to be dealt with with his wisdom more in order to benefit from these competencies in managing the state because of the experiences they possess that would raise State level to the highest levels.

Marwiaat of Imam Abu al-Wafa al-Baghdadi (died 513 AH) through Ibn al-Jawzi’s book al-Muntazam fi History of Kings and Nations (died 597 AH

Ismael Mujbel Hamad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 87-103

Islamic history is not without perosnolities with fingerprints in the tiled of science and knowledge a d who provided the Islamic civilization library with their books that that carried within the their ideas and sciences that benefited the Islamic community and among these figures Abu al-wafa bin aqil and his scientific role and his narrations in the field of science and history and his stance and message that he used to send to the governors of matters and what was included in those letters and his stance towards some of events that occurred in his time

Contributions of Basra scholars to the science of history in the first Abbasid era

Nafea H. Ali Al.Dulaimi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 104-119

Praise be to God, by whose grace good deeds are accomplished, and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of guidance and the master of beings, the leader of the pious, the Messenger of the Lord of the Worlds, my master Muhammad, the Trustworthy, and upon his family and his companions and those who are loyal to him, and he walked on his method and followed his footsteps.The Arab-Islamic heritage is a major source of contemporary Arab thought, so it must be studied to determine the authenticity of the Arab Islamic nation and the stages of its civilizational radiation, or its failure, whether in the East or the West of the Arab world. In the field of history, the Basrians composed it with the care of a number of researchers, they made serious and in-depth efforts that helped a lot to know its resources, and what reached us and what did not.

Khartoum Summit and its impact on Saudi-Sudanese relations in 1967

Saad M. Obaid; Ali H. Ali

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 120-134

The research highlighted the role of the Sudanese government in ending the conflict between Arab countries, especially between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Egypt, over Yemen, through the role played by the Sudanese Prime Minister, Muhammad Ahmad Mahjoub, in the success of the Khartoum Conference in 1967, after convincing the Saudi side and Egypt to attend the conference, and urged them to unify Arab efforts and unity of the Arab ranks to confront the Zionist entity and recover all Arab lands from the Zionist entity that it occupiedDuring the June 5, 1967 war, as well as urging it to join forces with all Arab energies after Arab leaders felt responsible as a result of losing that war, and securing the withdrawal of the Zionist entity from Arab lands through political action at the Arab and international level within the scope of its three principles: There is no peace with the Zionist entity There is no recognition of the Zionist entity or negotiations with the Zionist entity.

Banks and lending institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 1981-1995

Ali A. Mahanna; Ahmed S. Khlifa

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 135-154

The banking sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ranked second among the Arab sectors in terms of the volume of assets, which constitute about 18.2 percent of the total assets of the Arab banking sector, and for financial inclusion, Saudi Arabia ranks fourth on the Arab level after the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Kuwait in terms of the rate of use of services The Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency seeks to monitor and manage domestic liquidity to ensure the smooth operation of the banking sector and the continued fulfillment of the needs of the economic sectors In this context, the ratio of loans to deposits in commercial banks has decreased

The entry of nationalism into the Ottoman Empire

Dhirar Kh. Hasan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 155-180

But after the national idea was a major role in the history of the Ottoman Empire in the modern era, since the Ottoman Empire had gathered under its banner nationalities, religions, and multiple sects that lived for seven centuries under it, under one state and one name is the Ottoman component, and the national idea contributed to the fragmentation of this great entity after What this idea was planted in the minds and hearts of the people of the state in different directions, morals and actions, and was exploited by the enemies and succeeded in tearing it and its unity The study was divided into four sections, the introduction and the conclusion of the topic summary. The first topic focused on the rise of nationalism and its establishment in Europe, and the second topic discussed the historical roots of nationalism entering the Ottoman Empire, and the third topic discussed the sources of the emergence of nationalist ideas in the Ottoman Empire. The era of federalists and the Republican era and thank Allah the god of everything

The civilizational contributions of the Iraqi Scientific Academy to the general cultural life

Ahmed A. Abdulnabi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 181-209

The Scientific Academy is considered one of the most important institutions established in Iraq in the twentieth century, as its establishment had necessary reasons to take care of the Arabic language and purify it from the defects attached to it, as well as to support the scientific renaissance through the Arabization of terms and the translation of foreign books, to keep up with what is happening in the world of scientific renaissance At that time, and to consecrate cultural life through the contributions of the scientific, cultural and intellectual complex

Lebanon's position on the project of the Islamic alliance in 1966 and its impact on the course of its relations with Egypt and Saudi Arabia

Sudad A. Sabti

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 209-230

Saudi Arabia adopted the idea of the Islamic alliance under the cover of Islamic solidarity during the reign of King Faisal bin Abdulaziz in 1965, with the support of the United States, which announced its support for this idea, and found in King Faisal the qualified man to lead the campaign to combat atheism and communism in the Arab countries, and this idea was rejected by the majority of The Arab countries considered this a colonial project directed against Arab nationalism, and Lebanon was among the Arab countries that opposed the alliance based on its policy of neutrality towards Arab issues and rejection of the policy of alliances. The position rejecting the alliance contributed to its failure, and it remained an idea that hasn't appeared yet.

The constitution and national unity in the perspective of some Iraqi newspapers , 1958 - 1961 (the Kurds as a model)

Abdulsamea Kh. Abid; Sufian M. Saleh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 231-253

The press played a prominent role in political events and to demonstrate its position on the constitution and national unity, and most of the newspapers were expressing the opinion of their owners, which was calling for national unity and the participation of all spectra of the Iraqi people with important decisions that have an impact on the political and constitutional aspect . Iraqi newspapers have varied in writing articles related to the constitution and national unity. Some of them were affiliated with the government. Of course, these newspapers will take a supportive position to the government in taking any decision related to political, social or economic matters, and there are newspapers belonging to the parties that were loyal to the ruling regime, but they She was not at the same pace in her loyalty to the government, and she was subjected to closures for reasons that might relate to the people in her administration or to conflicting positions for a specific situation in the country, and there are independent newspapers and most of them are afraid of the government position and therefore were almost loyal to the government.

Tawfiq Rushdi Aras and his political and career activity in the Ottoman Empire until 1918 AD

Asaad Shakir Humaidi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 254-273

This research is concerned with studying the political role of Dr. "Tawfiq Rushdi Aras" and analyzing his political personality, by touching on his life, education, career activity and political role during the late era of Ottoman empire, especially during the era of the second conditionality and the rule of the federations (Committee of Itihad and Taraqi) (1908-1918 AD), and all the accidents that occurred during that time starting with the Balkan wars (1912-1913AD) and ending with the First World War (1914-1918AD), which ended with the loss of the Ottoman Empire and dividing its possessions among the victorious countries.

The national uprisings and their impact on the political situation in Iraq (1948 - 1958)

Qatran A. Mejbil

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 274-288

After the Second World War, Britain found itself in a new situation in the Middle East and became economically dependent on the United States of America, as it was thinking about special relations with the Middle East in general and Iraq in particular, and at that time the Iraqi government was seeking to preserve its distinguished relations with Britain as the other worked On concluding treaties with Iraq, these treaties were met with severe popular uprisings and from all national forces, and unrest prevailed, as students of colleges and institutes struck their denunciations, and the call for reforming internal conditions, changing the election system, reforming economic life, abolishing feudalism, and paying attention to health and cultural

The Ramadi Brigade in the Temporary Economic Plan (1959-1961 AD)

Ali Jassim Muhammad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 289-302

After the Revolution of July 1958, led by free officers, Iraq witnessed a series of economic projects, including the Ramadi Brigade projects, most notably the housing projects famous for by President Abdul Karim Qassem, the first prime minister of the new Republican era, and is part of reforms that inherited its problems from the monarchy, and the projects included sectors such as: (Health, education, transportation, transportation, urban and cultural projects), and the Planning Ministry took over the planning council to implement those projects in cooperation with the relevant ministries at the time

Shammar Market Obelisk Legislation And its cultural connotations (4th century BC)

Rahma Bint Awaad Al-Sanani

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 303-328

The current study aimed at shedding light on issues related to the Kingdom of Qataban as the study indicated that the Kingdom succeeded during the period between the end of the fifth century BC and the fourth century BC in preparing the country to issue legislation for (Shammar Market) by extending influence and control over most of the land commercial convoys and the paths through the mountains linking its fertile valleys, and the Kingdom formulated the articles of legislation of its law to achieve its major economic interests and guarantee security and profit for all market workers, merchants and its visitors, which led to the subjugation of all the dominant kingdoms and tribes that may pose a threat to its commercial economy, It took (Shammar Market) which was famous as its capital to be a major centre for bringing merchants from inside and outside the Arabian Peninsula to settle there.

The Political Intermarriage in the Second Thousand Century BC. ( Egypt – Hittite - Mitanni )

Fares A. Jasem; Ghaith S. Farhan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 329-345

Political intermarriage is an important subject worthy of study, as it was a popular method of strengthening treaties and alliances between the kingdoms of the ancient Near East. In the first axis, we shed light on the most important political developments in the ancient Middle East. In the second axis, we dealt with the Mittan-Egyptian relations, and the conflict that took place between them over the Levant, and then the rapprochement that took place due to the growing power of the Hittites, and that rapprochement led to the marriage of The kings of Egypt are the princesses of Mitaniyat. As for the third axis, it revolved around the Egyptian Hittite conflict, in which we talked about the Battle of Kadesh and its importance, and about the rapprochement that occurred between the two countries after that battle, which culminated in the Treaty of Kadesh, and then that treaty was reinforced by the marriage of the Egyptian King Rameses II to the daughter of King Hittite Khatoshilish III.In writing the research, we used a group of Arabic and Arabized sources. We also appended the research with a conclusion that included the most important results that were reached

Holidays in Judaism

Abdulrazzaq H. Saleh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 346-361

It is mentioned that in the old Testament, the Jews have a strong link with the Eids anniversaries, and that the mercy wouldn't fall on them except by providing offerings and sacrifices which were gifted in these Eids anniversaries as they were a means brought them to the Lord )God(The Jews believed, particularly the divine men, that the Books opened in the sky and write people's works and the judgment issued on the individuals by name in this day. Accordingly, the good deeds and charity were increasing and the repentance accepted as well as the mercies grew.

Freedom of women from the ancient era until the Islamic era

Banan Fakhir Yusuf

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 362-384

The research deals with a historical study on how to deal with women during the historical ages from the beginning of creation until the Islamic era and the extent to which the divine religions are fair to their rights in the inherited problem between women and men, a problem between the ebb and flow, between attraction and tension, and the extent to which the legacies of the ages left in successive periods on their freedom until they became in Some societies are captives, hostages, and victims of ideas left over by ancient human minds. These customs and traditions have coincided with what is happening in societies during the present time. The study of the reality of women and the treatment of the backward male mind with her is a means of torture and the robbery of her will at times and murder at other times by some people based on the perception that she is a servant of her home. At the same time, the man had absolute freedom, the torture she was suffering from was psychological torture and physical torture through denying her personality and depriving her of her rights until he reached that she was considered a shame in many societies and then killing her is not a sin other than that she is a female only ... As for the monotheistic religions ... the monotheistic religions differed in granting women their rights. The woman’s affairs were not equal in all religions. They differed from one religion to another. There are those who remained to be deprived of their rights and there are those who gave her equality with men and there are those who made her half the man, but in any case the woman did not remain prisoner to the man And the one who was defeated is her, as she was granted the right to choose her husband and forbidden to kill her

The problem which face agriculture of seeds and vegetables in AL:Anbar province and suggestive solutions for them

Hameed H. Musa; Kamal S. Kazkuz

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 385-407

This study aim to give clear image about the problems which Face agriculture of seeds and vegetables in study area and to find number of treatments in the future for these constrains . Also this study depends on analyzing and descriptive method and fielded lookups to limit these constrains . This study gets number of geographic problem some deals with nature side like climate circumstances and soil salting with weeds spreading and agricultural diseases . Another problems deals with manned – side like Urban creep and Backward irrigations with decreasing in production supplies and weakness of agricultural politics .This study shows difference between affection of seed and vegetables with manned and natural factors ,that manned factors effect more than natural factors on agricultural production because of the humans are the main reason with incidences, like soil salting as a result of wrong irrigation and decreasing of production with agricultural areas , because of urban creep on agricultural areas and weakness of agricultural planning .This study gets a number of suggestive solutions which leads to enlarge the agricultural areas with increasing of agricultural production and to achieve optimal independence for agricultural areas through following scientific methods and correct agricultural politics

The modern Chinese geopolitical impact on the international system through the components of soft power

Widad H. Mukhlif; Hussein A. Abd; Ayad A. Abdal

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 408-432

The research deals with the study of the geopolitical effect of Chinese soft power on the international system, and the historical sequence of the development of the concept of geopolitics has been clarified since the end of the nineteenth century until now, as geopolitics witnessed important developments and the purpose was to arrive at presenting additional components of soft power with the effect of geopolitics, namely; Geographical considerations of the state, economic resources and political factors. By getting acquainted with the Chinese philosophy of soft power that was recognized in the research, and showing the extent of its continuous consolidation by the Chinese leadership in harmony with its political values and the culture of its society, which are attributed to the historical culture of Confucius, it was revealed that China was able to build its soft power in areas that included political, economic and social foundations. It played an important role in establishing the principle of peace and international and regional cooperation, and through China's pursuit of its foreign policy to create a safe environment for economic growth, avoiding conflicts and disputes, and opening up to the world.

Estimating the volume of surface runoff of Wadi Al-Sahliya basin in Iraqi western plateau

Wasan M. Khalaf; Mash'al M. Fayaadh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 433-459

The current study presents special information about the conditions of surface water flow represented by the depth and volume of runoff of the basin of Wadi Al-Sahliah located in Iraqi western plateau, which has an area of 6019.3. Many mathematical models have been formulated by specialists to describe the hydrological work of the water basins and the affecting factors where their results have received wide acceptance and an effective tool in decision-making with respect to estimating the volume and depth of surface runoff and preventing flood risks. Therefore, one of the important methods used in calculating surface runoff in hydrological studies is the curve method. This model is developed by the US Soil Conservation Service in 1986. This method is used in calculating the volume of surface runoff for Wadi Al-Sahliah through (CN) values and rain quantity recorded in Rutba station. The highest single rain fall recorded during the period from (2003-2013) on (12/29/2013) is adopted as it reached (40 mm), where the depth of surface runoff in the Wadi Al-Sahliah basin for the same rainfall reaches (17.74 mm), and the volume of surface runoff reaches (106.782.380 billion m2). In order to obtain accurate results according to the model adopted, the data is analyzed to achieving integration between a set of modern software represented by remote sensing data and geographic information systems (GIS) outputs which clearly affect the analysis of the hydrological characteristics of the basin and then reveal the relationship between the type of land cover and the types of hydrological soils.

The reality of liquefied gas transportation and marketing in Anbar Governorate

Nasif J. Abid; Subhi A. Mekhlif

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 460-483

The transportation and marketing of liquefied gas is one of the most important branches of economic activities on which all regions and countries depend, compared to oil, especially in light of the increasing global demand for gas, and it has become the fuel that drives many economic development processes. Anbar is a study in industrial geography. These laboratories are divided into 17 private and government laboratories, 12 private laboratories and 5 government laboratories

The urban domination of Fallujah

Sahar Kh. Hammad; Amjad R. Mohammed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 484-507

The concept of dominance in urban studies represents the largest city in the country or province, which is followed by small cities in terms of size and function, and the level of dominance is measured by the population and the number of jobs performed by the dominant city . the higher these two factors the higher the dominance of the city as the city of fallujah represents a center of human activity it is a basic rule all businesses that contribute to creating and regulating the flow of population and activities between it and the surrounding centers whether urban rustic and therefore it practices various processes of attraction for people and their activities it is necessary to study a number of indicators that show the extent of the fallujah city center authority over other urban centers in the governorate through the application of many known statistical methods and methods to measure and analyze the hierarchy of urban centers related to many factors such as the city's size functions and regional role.

Geographical analysis of the distribution of Zain Iraq telecom network services in Anbar Governorate using Geographical Information Systems (G.I.S)

Saad S. Shehab; Meshal F. Ghadhib

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 508-540

This study comes in the midst of the tremendous technological revolution achieved in the field of mobile communications, and deals with an analysis of "geographical distribution of telecommunications network services (Zain Iraq), which is the most widespread in Anbar Governorate compared with other mobile phone networks (Asia Cell and Cork) according to the spatial distribution of its towers and according to Administrative units and on the transport routes axes (express, main, secondary and rural) and according to the technology supported by the communication tower (2G, 3G), as well as analyzing the levels of coverage (cadastral and demographic) through the use of geographic information systems (GIS) programs and the use of standards approved by the company In its coverage of the area and population, the research concluded that the proportion of the area served by the network amounted to about (47.9)%, while the percentage of deficit was about (52.1)% for the un-served area throughout the governorate, and the district of (Rawa) came at the lowest percentage and in reality (33.9%), while the (Habbaniyah and Al-Karma) judiciary came with the highest percentage of covered area, at 100%.