Volume 2021, Issue 4 (Vol 18- Issue 4- 2021), Autumn 2021, Page 4090-5272


The urban developments witnessed by the Fustat Mosque from its foundation until the end of the Umayyad era

Hammad F. Hammadi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4090-4108
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171463

There is no doubt that the mosque has a great importance and status in Islam, and Allah Almighty has pointed out in the Holy Qur'an to the status of the mosque and those working in its architecture .After the conquest of Egypt in 21 Ah, commander Amr ibn al-Aas began planning the city of Fustat, to be a military base for launching military operations, and housing for combat soldiers, so he began to establish the mosque, to be the first urban unit to be established in the city and next to it the House of the emirate, and around them the plans of the tribes, a large gathering of of which:  The Taj of mosques, the ancient mosque, as well as the name by which it was known since its foundation as the Amr ibn al-Aas mosque, and the seminars of lessons and guidance, and classes of jurisprudence, Hadith, Qur'anic Sciences and literature were held there, and witnessed several urban developments since its foundation until the end of the Umayyad era

Pages from the history of the Apostolic State for the period (842 AH to 858 AH) through the Manuscript of the History of the Mukashik (904 AH)

Nour S. Nasser; Iftikhar A.Rajab

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4109-4135
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171464

The research dealt with the political conditions of Yemen in an important era in the history of the Apostolic State (626 AH - 858 AH), which was marked by the appearance of features of weakness and collapse in which slaves soon dominated the state administration because of the weakness of kings and internal conflicts between its sons.
   The research began with the death of the apparent Apostolic King (831 AH - 842 AH), and his son, the Honorable King, assumed power until the year 858 AH, which ends with the ouster of the Apostolic King Masoud himself from the king, and Banu Taher assumed rule of the country.
  The research included two parts, the first study covered the definition of the manuscript, its percentage, the writer's sources, style, and method of investigation. The second section included the investigated text.

Notes on Mahmud of Ghazna,Artcial by the great British Orientalist De Lacy O'Leary

Zuhair Yousif Oleiwi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4136-4168
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171466

Studying the lives of the greats and heroes of history has become a vital and urgent necessity in the study of history because it is one of the main factors in knowing the history of the nation in which that Islamic hero grew up, and at the same time it reflects the nature of history for the hero and the role he played in the history of that nation. Mahmud of Ghazna  is one of the most important heroes of Islamic history for whom history has recorded a record of great achievements written in history and has attracted the attention of most researchers. It is a scientific assessment of its historical status from a Western point of view.

The political reasons and motives for the phenomenon of excluding scholars in the Arab Islamic state in the abbasid era

Hind F. Saleh; Siham J. Jassim

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4169-4188
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171469

Despite the great position that the scholars enjoyed in the Arab Islamic state, especially in the Abbasid era, where the successors of this state were interested in science and scholars, and Islamic culture reached its peak in this era, but many scholars were subjected to exclusion and persecution in the Abbasid era, and the motives that were many It led to their exclusion, and political motives were one of the most important motives that led to the exclusion of scholars. The decisions to exclude the scholars varied between right and wrong, and in the effects that resulted from it, whether positive or negative. The wrong decisions were many when compared to the positive ones. The Arab Islamic state lost many scholars as a result of political exclusion, as well as the loss of administrative competencies that were supposed to be dealt with with his wisdom more in order to benefit from these competencies in managing the state because of the experiences they possess that would raise State level to the highest levels.

Marwiaat of Imam Abu al-Wafa al-Baghdadi (died 513 AH) through Ibn al-Jawzi’s book al-Muntazam fi History of Kings and Nations (died 597 AH)

Ismael Mujbel Hamad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4189-4208
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171470

Islamic history is not without perosnolities with fingerprints in the tiled of science and knowledge a d who provided the Islamic civilization library with their books that  that carried within the their ideas and sciences that benefited the Islamic community and among these figures Abu al-wafa bin aqil  and his scientific role and his narrations in the field of science and history and his stance and message that he used to send to the governors of matters and what was included in those letters and his stance towards some of events that occurred in his time

Contributions of Basra scholars to the science of history in the first Abbasid era

Nafea H. Ali Al.Dulaimi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4209-4227
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171507

The Arab-Islamic heritage has formed a major source of Contemporary Arab Thought, So it must be studied to determine the authenticity of the Arab-Islamic nation and the stages of its civilizational radiation, or its failure, whether in the east of the Arab world or in the Maghreb. researchers have been interested in studying Arab-Islamic history in the Levant and Morocco, and what the visionaries in the field of history have been carefully prepared by a number of researchers, who have made serious and in-depth efforts that have helped a lot to know its resources, and what has reached US and what has not reached us, the people of Al-Sarra, who are part of the people of Iraq in the types and fields of the science of history and its codification, so be interested in writing the prophetic biography, and the General History, and we will show through this research the most prominent scholars of Basra  Who had a great impact on the development of the science of history and its prosperity.

Khartoum Summit and its impact on Saudi-Sudanese relations in 1967

Saad M. Obaid; Ali H. Ali

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4228-4244
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171508

The research highlighted the role of the Sudanese government in ending the conflict between Arab countries, especially between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Egypt, over Yemen, through the role played by the Sudanese Prime Minister, Muhammad Ahmad Mahjoub, in the success of the Khartoum Conference in 1967, after convincing the Saudi side and Egypt to attend the conference, and urged them to unify Arab efforts and unity of the Arab ranks to confront the Zionist entity and recover all Arab lands from the Zionist entity that it occupied
During the June 5, 1967 war, as well as urging it to join forces with all Arab energies after Arab leaders felt responsible as a result of losing that war, and securing the withdrawal of the Zionist entity from Arab lands through political action at the Arab and international level within the scope of its three principles: There is no peace with the Zionist entity There is no recognition of the Zionist entity or negotiations with the Zionist entity.

Banks and lending institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 1981-1995

Ali A. Mahanna; Ahmed S. Khlifa

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4245-4266
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171510

The banking sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ranked second among the Arab sectors in terms of the volume of assets, which constitute about 18.2 percent of the total assets of the Arab banking sector, and for financial inclusion, Saudi Arabia ranks fourth on the Arab level after the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Kuwait in terms of the rate of use of services The Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency seeks to monitor and manage domestic liquidity to ensure the smooth operation of the banking sector and the continued fulfillment of the needs of the economic sectors In this context, the ratio of loans to deposits in commercial banks has decreased

The entry of nationalism into the Ottoman Empire

Dhirar Kh. Hasan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4267-4297
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171511

But after the national idea was a major role in the history of the Ottoman Empire in the modern era, since the Ottoman Empire had gathered under its banner nationalities, religions, and multiple sects that lived for seven centuries under it, under one state and one name is the Ottoman component, and the national idea contributed to the fragmentation of this great entity after What this idea was planted in the minds and hearts of the people of the state in different directions, morals and actions, and was exploited by the enemies and succeeded in tearing it and its unity
 The study was divided into four sections, the introduction and the conclusion of the topic summary. The first topic focused on the rise of nationalism and its establishment in Europe, and the second topic discussed the historical roots of nationalism entering the Ottoman Empire, and the third topic discussed the sources of the emergence of nationalist ideas in the Ottoman Empire. The era of federalists and the Republican era and thank Allah the god of everything

The civilizational contributions of the Iraqi Scientific Academy to the general cultural life

Ahmed A. Abdulnabi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4298-4327
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171512

The Scientific Academy is considered one of the most important institutions established in Iraq in the twentieth century, as its establishment had necessary reasons to take care of the Arabic language and purify it from the defects attached to it, as well as to support the scientific renaissance through the Arabization of terms and the translation of foreign books, to keep up with what is happening in the world of scientific renaissance At that time, and to consecrate cultural life through the contributions of the scientific, cultural and intellectual complex.

Lebanon's position on the project of the Islamic alliance in 1966 and its impact on the course of its relations with Egypt and Saudi Arabia

Sudad A. Sabti

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4328-4351
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171513

Saudi Arabia adopted the idea of   the Islamic alliance under the cover of Islamic solidarity during the reign of King Faisal bin Abdulaziz in 1965, with the support of the United States, which announced its support for this idea, and found in King Faisal the qualified man to lead the campaign to combat atheism and communism in the Arab countries, and this idea was rejected by the majority of  The Arab countries considered this a colonial project directed against Arab nationalism, and Lebanon was among the Arab countries that opposed the alliance based on its policy of neutrality towards Arab issues and rejection of the policy of alliances. The position rejecting the alliance contributed to its failure, and it remained an idea that hasn't appeared yet.

The constitution and national unity in the perspective of some Iraqi newspapers , 1958 - 1961 (the Kurds as a model)

Abdulsamea Kh. Abid; Sufian M. Saleh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4352-4376
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171514

The press played a prominent role in political events and to demonstrate its position on the constitution and national unity, and most of the newspapers were expressing the opinion of their owners, which was calling for national unity and the participation of all spectra of the Iraqi people with important decisions that have an impact on the political and constitutional aspect .                                                         
   Iraqi newspapers have varied in writing articles related to the constitution and national unity. Some of them were affiliated with the government. Of course, these newspapers will take a supportive position to the government in taking any decision related to political, social or economic matters, and there are newspapers belonging to the parties that were loyal to the ruling regime, but they She was not at the same pace in her loyalty to the government, and she was subjected to closures for reasons that might relate to the people in her administration or to conflicting positions for a specific situation in the country, and there are independent newspapers and most of them are afraid of the government position and therefore were almost loyal to the government.

Tawfiq Rushdi Aras and his political and career activity in the Ottoman Empire until 1918 AD

Asaad Shakir Humaidi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4377-4399
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171515

This research is concerned with studying the political role of Dr. "Tawfiq Rushdi Aras" and analyzing his political personality, by touching on his life, education, career activity and political role during the late era of Ottoman empire, especially during the era of the second conditionality and the rule of the federations (Committee of Itihad and Taraqi) (1908-1918 AD), and all the accidents that occurred during that time starting with the Balkan wars (1912-1913AD) and ending with the First World War (1914-1918AD), which ended with the loss of the Ottoman Empire and dividing its possessions among the victorious countries.

The national uprisings and their impact on the political situation in Iraq (1948 - 1958)

Qatran A. Mejbil

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4400-4416
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171517

After the Second World War, Britain found itself in a new situation in the Middle East and became economically dependent on the United States of America, as it was thinking about special relations with the Middle East in general and Iraq in particular, and at that time the Iraqi government was seeking to preserve its distinguished relations with Britain as the other worked On concluding treaties with Iraq, these treaties were met with severe popular uprisings and from all national forces, and unrest prevailed, as students of colleges and institutes struck their denunciations, and the call for reforming internal conditions, changing the election system, reforming economic life, abolishing feudalism, and paying attention to health and cultural

The Ramadi Brigade in the Temporary Economic Plan (1959-1961 AD)

Ali Jassim Muhammad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4417-4431
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171519

After the Revolution of July 1958, led by free officers, Iraq witnessed a series of economic projects, including the Ramadi Brigade projects, most notably the housing projects famous for by President Abdul Karim Qassem, the first prime minister of the new Republican era, and is part of reforms that inherited its problems from the monarchy, and the projects included sectors such as: (Health, education, transportation, transportation, urban and cultural projects), and the Planning Ministry took over the planning council to implement those projects in cooperation with the relevant ministries at the time.

Shammar Market Obelisk Legislation And its cultural connotations (4th century BC)

Rahma Bint Awaad Al-Sanani

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4432-4460
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171521

The current study aimed at shedding light on issues related to the Kingdom of Qataban as the study indicated that the Kingdom succeeded during the period between the end of the fifth century BC and the fourth century BC in preparing the country to issue legislation for (Shammar Market) by extending influence and control over most of the land commercial convoys and the paths through the mountains linking its fertile valleys, and the Kingdom formulated the articles of legislation of its law to achieve its major economic interests and guarantee security and profit for all market workers, merchants and its visitors, which led to the subjugation of all the dominant kingdoms and tribes that may pose a threat to its commercial economy, It took (Shammar Market) which was famous as its capital to be a major centre for bringing merchants from inside and outside the Arabian Peninsula to settle there.

The Political Intermarriage in the Second Thousand Century BC.( Egypt – Hittite - Mitanni )

Fares A. Jasem; Ghaith S. Farhan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4461-4479
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171523

Political intermarriage is an important subject worthy of study, as it was a popular method of strengthening treaties and alliances between the kingdoms of the ancient Near East. In the first axis, we shed light on the most important political developments in the ancient Middle East. In the second axis, we dealt with the Mittan-Egyptian relations, and the conflict that took place between them over the Levant, and then the rapprochement that took place due to the growing power of the Hittites, and that rapprochement led to the marriage of The kings of Egypt are the  princesses of Mitaniyat. As for the third axis, it revolved around the Egyptian Hittite conflict, in which we talked about the Battle of Kadesh and its importance, and about the rapprochement that occurred between the two countries after that battle, which culminated in the Treaty of Kadesh, and then that treaty was reinforced by the marriage of the Egyptian King Rameses II to the daughter of King Hittite Khatoshilish III.

Holidays in Judaism

Abdulrazzaq H. Saleh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4480-4498
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171526

It is mentioned that in the old Testament, the Jews have a strong link with the Eids anniversaries, and that the mercy wouldn't fall on them except by providing offerings and sacrifices which were gifted in these Eids anniversaries as they were a means brought them to the Lord )God(
The Jews believed, particularly the divine men, that the Books opened in the sky and write people's works and the judgment issued on the individuals by  name in this day. Accordingly, the good deeds and charity were increasing and the repentance accepted as well as the mercies grew

Freedom of women from the ancient era until the Islamic era

Banan Fakhir Yusuf

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4498-4523
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171528

The research deals with a historical study on how to deal with women during the historical ages from the beginning of creation until the Islamic era and the extent to which the divine religions are fair to their rights in the inherited problem between women and men, a problem between the ebb and flow, between attraction and tension, and the extent to which the legacies of the ages left in successive periods on their freedom until they became in Some societies are captives, hostages, and victims of ideas left over by ancient human minds. These customs and traditions have coincided with what is happening in societies during the present time. The study of the reality of women and the treatment of the backward male mind with her is a means of torture and the robbery of her will at times and murder at other times by some people based on the perception that she is a servant of her home.
     At the same time, the man had absolute freedom, the torture she was suffering from was psychological torture and physical torture through denying her personality and depriving her of her rights until he reached that she was considered a shame in many societies and then killing her is not a sin other than that she is a female only ... As for the monotheistic religions ... the monotheistic religions differed in granting women their rights. The woman’s affairs were not equal in all religions. They differed from one religion to another. There are those who remained to be deprived of their rights and there are those who gave her equality with men and there are those who made her half the man, but in any case the woman did not remain prisoner to the man And the one who was defeated is her, as she was granted the right to choose her husband and forbidden to kill her

The problem which face agriculture of seeds and vegetables in Anbar province and suggestive solutions for them

Hameed H. Musa; Kamal S. Kazkuz

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4524-4547
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171530

This study aim to give clear image about the problems which Face agriculture of seeds and vegetables in study area and to find number of treatments in the future for these constrains . Also this study depends on analyzing and descriptive method and fielded lookups to limit these constrains . This study gets number of geographic
problem some deals with nature side like climate circumstances and soil salting with weeds spreading and agricultural diseases . Another problems deals with  manned – side like Urban creep and Backward  irrigations with decreasing in production supplies and weakness of agricultural politics .This study shows difference between affection of seed and vegetables with manned and natural factors ,that manned factors effect more than natural factors on agricultural production because of the humans are the main reason with incidences, like soil salting as a result of wrong irrigation and decreasing of production with agricultural areas , because of urban creep on agricultural areas and weakness of agricultural planning .This study gets a number of suggestive solutions which leads to enlarge the agricultural areas with increasing of agricultural production and to achieve optimal independence for agricultural areas through following scientific methods and correct agricultural politics

The modern Chinese geopolitical impact on the international system through the components of soft power

Widad H. Mukhlif; Hussein A. Abd; Ayad A. Abdal

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4548-4573
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171534

The research deals with the study of the geopolitical effect of Chinese soft power on the international system, and the historical sequence of the development of the concept of geopolitics has been clarified since the end of the nineteenth century until now, as geopolitics witnessed important developments and the purpose was to arrive at presenting additional components of soft power with the effect of geopolitics, namely; Geographical considerations of the state, economic resources and political factors. By getting acquainted with the Chinese philosophy of soft power that was recognized in the research, and showing the extent of its continuous consolidation by the Chinese leadership in harmony with its political values and the culture of its society, which are attributed to the historical culture of Confucius, it was revealed that China was able to build its soft power in areas that included political, economic and social foundations. It played an important role in establishing the principle of peace and international and regional cooperation, and through China's pursuit of its foreign policy to create a safe environment for economic growth, avoiding conflicts and disputes, and opening up to the world.

Estimating the volume of surface runoff of Wadi Al-Sahliya basin in Iraqi western plateau

Wasan M. Khalaf; Mash'al M. Fayaadh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4574-4602
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171536

The current study presents special information about the conditions of surface water flow represented by the depth and volume of runoff of the basin of Wadi Al-Sahliah located in Iraqi western plateau, which has an area of 6019.3.  Many mathematical models have been formulated by specialists to describe the hydrological work of the water basins and the affecting factors where their results have received wide acceptance and an effective tool in decision-making with respect to estimating the volume and depth of surface runoff and preventing flood risks.
   Therefore, one of the important methods used in calculating surface runoff in hydrological studies is the curve method. This model is developed by the US Soil Conservation Service in 1986. This method is used in calculating the volume of surface runoff for Wadi Al-Sahliah through (CN) values and rain quantity recorded in Rutba station. The highest single rain fall recorded during the period from (2003-2013) on (12/29/2013) is adopted as it reached (40 mm), where the depth of surface runoff in the Wadi Al-Sahliah basin for the same rainfall reaches (17.74 mm), and the volume of surface runoff reaches (106.782.380 billion m2). In order to obtain accurate results according to the model adopted, the data is analyzed to achieving integration between a set of modern software represented by remote sensing data and geographic information systems (GIS) outputs which clearly affect the analysis of the hydrological characteristics of the basin and then reveal the relationship between the type of land cover and the types of hydrological soils.

The reality of liquefied gas transportation and marketing in Anbar Governorate

Nasif J. Abid; Subhi A. Mekhlif

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4603-4628
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171539

The transportation and marketing of liquefied gas is one of the most important branches of economic activities on which all regions and countries depend, compared to oil, especially in light of the increasing global demand for gas, and it has become the fuel that drives many economic development processes. Anbar is a study in industrial geography. These laboratories are divided into 17 private and government laboratories, 12 private laboratories and 5 government laboratories.

The urban domination of Fallujah

Sahar Kh. Hammad; Amjad R. Mohammed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4629-4653
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171541

The concept of dominance in urban studies represents the largest city in the country or province, which is followed by small cities in terms of size and function, and the level of dominance is measured by the population and the number of jobs performed by the dominant city . the higher these two factors the higher the dominance of the city as the city of fallujah represents a center of human activity it is a basic rule all businesses that contribute to creating and regulating the flow of population and activities between it and the surrounding centers whether urban rustic and therefore it practices various processes of attraction for people and their activities it is necessary to study a number of indicators that show the extent of the fallujah city center authority over other urban centers in the governorate through the application of many known statistical methods and methods to measure and analyze the hierarchy of urban centers related to many factors such as the city's size functions and regional role.

Geographical analysis of the distribution of Zain Iraq telecom network services in Anbar Governorate using Geographical Information Systems (G.I.S)

Saad S. Shehab; Meshal F. Ghadhib

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4654-4686
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171543

This study comes in the midst of the tremendous technological revolution achieved in the field of mobile communications, and deals with an analysis of "geographical distribution of telecommunications network services (Zain Iraq), which is the most widespread in Anbar Governorate compared with other mobile phone networks (Asia Cell and Cork) according to the spatial distribution of its towers and according to  Administrative units and on the transport routes axes (express, main, secondary and rural) and according to the technology supported by the communication tower (2G, 3G), as well as analyzing the levels of coverage (cadastral and demographic) through the use of geographic information systems (GIS) programs and the use of standards approved by the company  In its coverage of the area and population, the research concluded that the proportion of the area served by the network amounted to about (47.9)%, while the percentage of deficit was about (52.1)% for the un-served area throughout the governorate, and the district of (Rawa) came at the lowest percentage and in reality  (33.9%), while the (Habbaniyah and Al-Karma) judiciary came with the highest percentage of covered area, at 100%.

Analyzing the Hydro morphometric Features and their Geomorphological Dangers in Al-Rahhaliya Town \ Anbar Governorate

Mohammed M. Hammadi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4687-4719
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171667

The present study tackled the geomorphological perils of Rahaliya  town, which is located in the southeastern part of Ramadi district within Anbar Governorate. It occupies an area of (2863 km2). The natural, morphometric and hydrological features were studied, and the impact of these features in determining the strength and quality of geomorphological perils within the study area was shown. However, the study used modern technologies and special mathematical equations in calculating the values of the variables required in order to draw maps of the perils to which the study area is exposed, as the study included determining the dangers of morphometric, hydrological and net flow features. studied. The basins in which the degree of danger is (1), which is of less danger, included one basin that is (4) to occupy a percentage (20%) of the total basins, while the basins in which the degree of danger is (2), which is of medium danger, occupied a percentage of ( 40%) of the total basins, to include basins (2, 5), while the basins with a degree of dangernet (4) and which are very dangerous occupied (40%) of the total studied basins, represented by basins (1, 3).

India's economic weight and future vision

Shahlaa K. Aboud; Vian A. M. Lawand

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4719-4738
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171691

India is one of the countries with a large area that ranks seventh in the world in terms of area and the second in the Asian continent after China, in addition to having a strategic location in Central Asia, and a maritime continental country at the same time it has a strategic location overlooking one of the most important oceans, which is the Indian Ocean,  one of the most important shipping lines gives India a marketing advantage, in addition to the importance of its astronomical position, which has given it a diversity of plants and crops with seasonal rains.    India ranks fourth in the world in the production of minerals on the basis of size and India is the first in the world in terms of the rate of speed in economic growth, and it is the third largest economic power in the world after the United States of America and China, and the largest source of software in the world after the United States of America, it is the seventh nuclear power in the world after the United States, Russia, China, France, Britain and Israel, and the fifth world power in attracting investments after China, the United States, Britain and Mexico.  It represents the third largest army in the world backed by reserve forces, and it has the seventh largest declared defense budget.

Manifestations of changing geopolitical influence in the Middle East at the beginning of the third millennium

Ahmed Dawood

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4739-4774
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171693

The year 2016 represents a qualitative change in the regional and international geopolitical movement, as it represents the centenary of the 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement on the one hand, and the beginning of the end for the terrorist organization Daash in practice. This has an impact on the geopolitical behavior of countries that are active in the international political decision or those that influence it regionally, and even those that want to be It has a current and future role for a stage that has its aftermath of changes.
The geopolitical behavior in itself needs a renewed understanding, especially with the multiplicity and change of its actors on the one hand, and the different ways of expressing and representing it theoretically and realistically on the geographical area of the Middle East on the other hand.
This research sheds light with a geopolitical vision on the changes taking place in the region in terms of traditional power actors and the desire of new powers to play a more important role in the geographical scope that they may affect.

Geographical obstacles towards sustainable agricultural development in the countryside of Ramadi District

Mohammed A. F; Saadoun D. K

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4775-4800
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171696

The study aims to identify the role of agricultural policies in achieving sustainable agricultural development in the countryside of the Ramadi district and to identify the most important obstacles and policies that the rural areas of Ramadi suffers from, and through this topic we try to address the role of agricultural policies in achieving sustainable agricultural development and give priority to cultivating and using the land in the best way according to The available resources, which are natural and human resources, and the study set a future for sustainable agricultural development in the study area by trying to find an appropriate treatment for the obstacles facing this development on the one hand and strengthening its components on the other side

Estimation of the runoff volume of the Wadi Al-Wuj basin using the (SCS-CN) model.

Hala K. Mohammed; Saadi A. Awda

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4801-4831
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171698

The basin of  Wadi al-walaj valley is located within the western Anbar plateau in its northwestern part, and it is one of the seasonal dry valleys with internal water drainage, its size is 4539 km. Depending on the American hypotheses of keeping soil (SCS-CN) to determine the amount of eloping of water. This depends on : the quality of soil, the amount of rain and the cover of land.   The   basin of  al-malousi valley appears to be  the most important secondary basin contributing to surface runoff this is due to the quality of the soil with low permeability and the quality of the land cover, which dominated  by barren land..

Cartographic representation of the cultivation and production of grain crops in Ishaqi district, south of Salah al-Din Governorate

Muhannad F. Gzar; Abdulrazzaq S. Hammad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4832-4861
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171699

The study of mapping occupies great place within geographical studies as well as other sciences for what it presented from accurate wide capacities such as presenting, investigating joining, explanting and recovering of the data base as a good and accurate way of explanation. Ways of mapping has a great deal or mean for explanation about the ideas and the relationships that occur within the same area.
This study dealt with ((Cartographic representation of the cultivation and production of grain crops in Ishaqi district, south of Salah al-Din Governorate)) to show the importance of this science in the geographical study in preparing multiple maps. Preparing maps showing the distribution of phenomena (natural and human), as well as the distribution of agricultural crops in the form of quantitative maps, clarifying the discrepancy between agricultural provinces

The effect of modern agricultural marketing systems on visiting production and achieving sustainable development Experimenting with agricultural marketing systems in major cities (malls as a model)

Mathil Arif Al. Saed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4862-4880
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171700

The data of the field study were used for some large commercial centers in the countries of the Middle East, in addition to the data of the
major European markets operating the (mall) system.
For the purpose of determining the impact of modern agricultural marketing systems on the production visit and the achievement of sustainable agricultural development by the method of comprehensive inventory and field study, and it was found that (6) types of marketing systems exist in major commercial centers as well as the presence of (40%) to buy agricultural commodities and food products that are of primary source Agricultural production after conducting modern operations and marketing, and the results of the research concluded that there are (4) basic products: agricultural commodities, vegetables, and they are in great demand in varying proportions according to the attraction factors indicated by the part data .
It concluded that there are some problems and obstacles, especially human problems and obstacles that have contributed to affecting the transportation and marketing systems of major commercial centers in different proportions .

"Israel" and ISIS from the Euphrates to the Nile (Study in Geopolitical and Political Employment)

Ahmed Ajaj Mutar

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4881-4911
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171702

Jewish nationalism as a biblical, Talmudic and historical specificity was the most important pillar of the Jewish state project since the nineteenth century, and it represented the dialectical relationship of the first Zionists between geography and the meaning of the land and what is meant here (Promised Land - Palestine) on the one hand, and religion and history on the other hand. During the first half of the last century, this project turned from a mere ideological national project to a Zionist settlement project in Arab Palestine, the heart of the vital field of the Arab Mashreq region, where the Jewish state arose on a geopolitical area covering the historical area of Palestine, and has the ability to transform into a geopolitical project that guarantees Excellence and control over the Arab biosphere, this project is based on four points: the Euphrates in the east (Mesopotamia), the Nile in the west (Egypt), the Mediterranean in the west (Bilad al-Sham), and the Red Sea in the (Arabian Peninsula)

Spatial variation of sheep and goats in Sulaimaniyah province

Jenan Majeed Mahmoud

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4912-4954
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171704

This study is based on studying the geographical distribution of sheep and goats in the Sulaymaniyah governorate and analyzing their variance according to the districts، as sheep and goats are among the most important animals raised in Sulymaniyah to take advantage of their meat، dairy and wool، and on it this study tries to reveal the variables that explain sheep and goats geographically، And showing the effect of geographical factors on that distribution، as the geographical distribution of sheep and goats is affected by geographical factors (Physical and Human ) and by the population  distribution , As the surface of the governorate is characterized by swaying and complexity in the northeastern parts, and this terrain permeates areas of mountain valleys plains, and the suitability of climatic conditions, which is characterized by moderate temperatures and winter rains that are sufficient for dry cultivation and intensive natural plant growth. However, the animal wealth suffers many problems, which requires several Among other things, improving animal breeds and working to increase the productivity of local animals by developing an artificial insemination program and paying attention to veterinary cadres and providing fodder through the cultivation of some fodder crops, through which the development and advancement of sheep and goat raising.

Challenges of Human Security in Al-Anbar City

Randa T. Khalifa; Hameed K. A

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4955-4989
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171707

Security is the top priority for every country, and social security is inevitable necessity in society .
Society does not advance without the presence of security ,that enhances belonging and loyalty to the country among individuals .They are the challenges that the Iraqi society As exposed to decades ago and its entry into a series of wars and internal and external conflicts , as well as the various crises , lack of o factors have led to obstacles to achieve social and human security in society .The research aims to identify the most important challenges facing human security in the Anbar community , as well as what social security is .
As for the most important results of the research , they are summarized as follows :
1-         Poor human security in society has led to many problems in society .
2-         Young people suffer from serious social diseases  that affect their social path

Taking on Social Responsibility and its Relation with the Existing Belief in the Justice of the World Among the Instructors of Tikrit, Al-Anbar and Al-Mosal Universities

Latif Gazi Maki; Sabah M. Manokh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 4990-5038
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171708

The current research aims for: 1. Identifying the measurement of taking on social responsibility among the instructors of Tikrit, Al-Anbar and Al-Mosal universities. 2. Identifying the measurement of the existing belief in the justice of the world among the instructors of Tikrit, Al-Anbar and Al-Mosal universities. 3. Identifying the differences of a statistical significant of the concept of taking on social responsibility among the instructors of a university according to the kind of variable (males- females). 4. Identifying the differences of a statistical significant of the concept of existing belief in the justice of the world among the instructors of Tikrit, Al-Anbar and Al-Mosal universities. 5. Finding out the associative relation between taking on social responsibility and the existing belief in the justice of the world among the instructors of a university. For achieving the objectives of the current research, the researchers have built a scale for taking on social responsibility depending on Glaser's theory (1965) and his definition to the concept of taking on social responsibility. The researchers' scale in its final forma consists of (25) valid items for measuring the concept of taking on social responsibility. Additionally, the researchers have checked the psychometric properties of the scale, where the validity of the research has been extracted by two means which are: face validity and construct validity. Also, they have extracted the reliability of the research by using other two means which are: re-test where the reliability coefficient is (0,80) and Cronbach's alpha where the reliability coefficient is (0,82). Besides, the researchers have built a scale for the existing belief in the justice of the world depending on the theory of (Lerner & Melvin) and their definition to this concept. The researchers have checked the psychometric properties of this scale where the validity has been extracted by two means which are: face validity and construct validity. In the same time, the reliability of the research has been extracted by two means which are: re-test where the reliability coefficient is (0,77) and Cronbach's alpha where the reliability coefficient is (0,79). The final forma of this scale consists of (22) valid items for measuring the concept of existing belief in the justice of the world. The two scales have been applied on the sample of the research which consists of (400) male and female instructors from Tikrit, Al-Anbar and Al-Mosal universities for the morning classes for the academic year (2010-2021).

The Effectiveness of Overlapping Waves Strategy-Based Program in Developing the Cognitive Engagement of Preparatory Level Female Pupils

Marwa M. Shalal; Iman S. Kareem

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 5038-5076
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171711

The present research aims to identify the effectiveness of overlapping waves strategy-based program in developing the cognitive engagement of pupils' cognitive engagement. The cognitive engagement scale of preparatory school pupils was constructed. The sample was divided into two groups of (22) pupils in the experimental group and (23) pupils in the control group. The overlapping waves strategy program is based on the theory of Seigler. The number of sessions reached (22) sessions, the duration of the session was (60) minutes, at a rate of three to four sessions per week. There is a statistical difference between the mean scores of the experimental group pupils and the mean scores of the control group pupils in the post-application of the cognitive engagement scale in favor of the experimental group due to the overlapping waves' effectiveness program in developing the cognitive engagement. According to the results, the researcher has made several conclusions, recommendations, and suggestions.

Self-Deception and its Relationship to Psychological Well-Being among University Student

Abdulrahman. I. M; Ammar Awad Farhan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 5077-5115
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171712

The current research aims to identify the level of both self-deception and psychological well-Being among students of University of Anbar according to the variables of gender and specialization, and to identify the correlation between self-deception and psychological contentment, where the researcher adopted the steps of the descriptive, associative approach, and the selection of the sample in a stratified random manner by (200) students To achieve this, the researcher built a measure of self-deception based on the theory (Taylor & Brown, 1988).The scale of psychological well-Being was prepared according to the theory (Seligman, 2002), and after applying the appropriate statistical procedures, the results of the research showed that the research sample possesses self-deception at a high level, and that there are statistically significant differences according to the gender variable and for the benefit of males, and that the members of the sample enjoy psychological well-being at an intermediate level, There are no statistically significant differences according to the variables of type and specialization, as the results indicated a direct correlation between self-deception and psychological well-being among students of University of Anbar, and in light of the results the researcher put a number of recommendations and proposals.

High-level thinking and its relationship to academic affirmation among university student

Kamal S. Hasan; Fouad M. Frieh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 5116-5153
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171713

High level thinking is considered as one of the most modern and abundant with knowledge resources in the field of cognitive psychology that cannot be dispensed in daily life. Through it, effective strategies can be implemented to face the renewed conditions of life, in order to achieve effective academic performance. The current research aimed to identify the level of high level thinking and academic affirmation among university students and it also aimed to identify the nature of the relationship between them. To achieve the aims of the research, the researchers developed two scales; the first one was designed to measure high level thinking, which consisted of (47) items with five-point alternatives which were distributed into three aspects; (analysis, synthesis, and evaluation), and the second scale was designed to measure academic affirmation which consisted of (58) items with five-point alternatives which were distributed into four aspects (self-confidence, social, academic, achievement). After ensuring the psychometric characteristics (validity and reliability) of the two scales, they were distributed to the main sample of the research consisting of (400) male and female students. The data were analyzed statistically using T-test for one and two samples, and the Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that the university students have a good level of high level thinking (35.54) and academic affirmation (33.85). The results also indicated statistically significant differences in high level thinking according to the gender variable, in favor of males (2.36), and statistically significant differences in academic affirmation according to the gender variable in favor of males (3.83). In light of the findings of the current research, the research proposed a set of recommendations, including the participation of students in meaningful activities that would develop their knowledge structure and focus on aspects that improve their academic achievement.

The effect of the reading strategy (PQRST) on developing physical chemistry problem solving skills

Waad Ghanim Bdewi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 5154-5171
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171717

The aim of the research is to know the effect of the reading strategy (PQRST) in developing the skills of solving physical chemistry problems among students of the Department of Chemistry at the College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Mosul. The research sample consisted of (70) students from the third stage of the academic year (2019-2020). Distributing them into two equal groups in number and equivalence in some variables, an experimental group whose members studied solving physical chemistry problems according to the (PQRST) strategy, and the second control group whose members studied the topics according to the usual method. And verify its sincerity and stability, and the final formula consisted of (5) problems in physical chemistry, all of which were characterized by honesty and stability, and after the researcher completed the experiment, the researcher used the test prepared for his research students, and after obtaining and collecting the results and conducting statistical operations on them by applying the appropriate tools statistically, the results showed that:
At the level of significance (0.05) there is a statistically significant difference between the means of the problem-solving test for the members of the two groups and in favor of the experimental.

The effect of (STS) on the attitudes of middle school students and their achievement in the subject (Arabic grammar)

Hoda Muhammad Salman

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 5172-5184
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171719

The study aimed to find out the effect of (STS) on the attitudes of middle school students and their achievement in the subject (Arabic language grammar). The sample consisted of first-grade intermediate students. The experimental group included (72) students, and the control group (71) students. An achievement test was prepared in its final form, consisting of (8) paragraphs of the multiple choice type, (11) paragraphs of the type of completion, and (12) paragraphs of the essay type. A measure of trends was prepared that consisted of (31) items in its final form. Validity and reliability were verified and the value of the reliability coefficient for the scale was (0.85) and for the achievement test (0.86), so the test is valid for the study. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences between the average performance of the members of the experimental and control groups at the level of significance (0.05) in favor of the experimental group. The results of the post-trend scale also showed that there were statistically significant differences between the averages of the trends of the members of the experimental and control groups, at the significance level (0.05), in favor of the quasi-experimental group. In light of the results, the researcher concluded holding seminars and training courses for teachers to use the science, technology and society (sts) approach, encouraging Arabic language teachers to use (sts), and conducting studies similar to the current study on other materials

University Students' Perspectives Toward Using MALL in Learning English Language

Ali Sabah Jameel; Jinan Mohammed Abass

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 5185-5204
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171720

The researchers notice that mobile device has provided flexible environment to learn different subjects, English language is among these subjects. Thus, English Language learners' perspectives of using mobile in learning is one of the major factors for adoption Mobile Assisted language learning (MALL) applications in the university educational  environment. The present study aims to investigate  undergraduate students' perspectives (in the Department of Media- College of Arts -University of Anbar) toward learning English language as an ESP subject, to shift towards implementing MALL in teaching ESP instead of attending lecture at class. The participants were 32 male and female students who were enrolled in the Department of Media- College of Arts -University of Anbar). A questionnaire was used to collect the data of the study. The research tries to prove the following null hypothesis "There are no statistically significant differences in the mean scores of the students' perspectives towards learning English language that can be attributed to the MALL program". Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the participants' responds. The findings reveal that there are statistically positive differences in the mean scores toward using mobile in learning English Language. Furthermore, the undergraduate students have positive perspectives towards using mobile in Learning English Language.

The educational behavior of teachers and its relationship to academic adjustment among middle school students

Saber T. Yaseen; Sarab A. M

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 5205-5226
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171722

The aim of the current research is to measure the level of educational behavior among middle school teachers and its relationship to the academic adjustment of their students. The first aim was to measure the level of educational behavior among middle school teachers, while the second aim was to measure the level of educational behavior among middle school teachers according to the gender variable (male-female) While the third objective is to measure the level of academic adaptation among middle school students, and the fourth aim is to find the relationship between the educational behavior of middle school teachers and the academic adaptation of their students. As for the study sample, two samples were selected (the first of the teachers (80) and the second Of the students (80), the apparent honesty and consistency were verified by using the re-test method and using the Pearson correlation coefficient of the educational behavior scale (0.83) and the coefficient of the academic adaptation scale was (0.87), and the measures were applied to the research sample and the results were extracted using T-Test for one, two samples and Pearson correlation coefficient. The results showed the following:

Challenges facing male and female teachers in the distance education system In light of the Corona crisis

Rasha A. Khalaf

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 5227-5251
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171723

This study aimed to identify Challenges facing male and female teachers in the distance education system  In light of the Corona crisis
 beyond within the variables (gender, years of service), by answering academic questions, the study population consisted of all teachers and teachers in the secondary stage in the city of anbar, and a class sample was chosen Randomized by (20) teachers in the secondary stage in the city of anbar. A questionnaire was developed based on the theoretical framework and previous studies. The validity of the study tool was verified and the appropriate statistical treatment was carried out. The study concluded the following:
1-There are a number of challenges facing high school teachers in anbar in light of the Corona pandemic.
2-There were no statistically significant differences at the significance level (α <0.05) in the challenges facing male and female teachers at the secondary level in anbar in light of the Corona pandemic within the gender variable.

The Role of the New Media in Promoting Societal Peace Issues after the ISIS Terrorist(A: Study on the Public in Ramadi)

Abdul Sattar Hamid Judea

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 4, Pages 5252-5272
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2021.171726

This research comes under the title (The Role of New Media in Promoting Societal Peace in Anbar Governorate - A Study on the Public in Ramadi). The main aim of this research is to identify the role that the new media plays in promoting societal peace in Anbar Governorate. My agencies:
1-. Identify the highest role that the new media plays in promoting societal peace in Anbar.
2- Investigate the most follow-up sites from the governorate’s audience.3
3-Disclosure of the best contents about societal peace, to be followed by the public
 
The researcher relies on the survey method using the questionnaire tool to reach the results, and the research community was represented by the public of Anbar Governorate. As for his sample, it is from the city of Ramadi, the center of Anbar Governorate, and it reaches (250) respondents, and the research reaches the following results:1
1-Most of the respondents' answers indicated that the lack of a unified media discourse towards building a society with positive values among the negatives in the new media
2- The results also proved that presenting ideas and opinions that stimulate a sense of true citizenship comes at the forefront of methods that have an impact on societal peace.