Volume 2021, Issue 6, Spring 2021


The components of agricultural production and their role in agricultural development in Anbar Governorate - a geographical study

Kamal S. Kazkoz; Dhiaa Kh. Ali

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 1-31

Anbar province, which is located in the central part of western Iraq, is one of the areas where most of the agricultural production is available, especially the natural ones, such as the Euphrates River, lakes, good soil in the Euphrates River Basin and even the desert areas can be used to grow some crops suitable for their environmental conditions.This research is one of the studies directly related to the population, especially as it is related to its food. The problem lies in the lack of balance between agricultural production and consumption in Anbar province, which reflected on the standard of living and unequal agricultural varieties in achieving food security.The research aims to identify the constraints of the balance between the production and consumption of basic agricultural crops through the realistic data and the reasons that have shown these constraints, as well as to identify the most important treatments and proposals that lead to some acceptable data or at least reduce the gap between the two variables.

obstacle's to agricultural -- industrial integration and it's future vision to words solutions to them in Anbar Governorate

Abdul S. Aref; Subhi A. Mikhlif

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 32-59

There are many problems and obstacles facing agricultural activity, which determine its expansion and development horizontally and vertically, including the study area, which is characterized by low agricultural production and arable and actually cultivated lands, especially the weak production of industrial crops, and the lack of interest in agricultural industrialization due to the weakness of industrial development, which resulted in a set of problems affecting agricultural-industrial integration Therefore, the research came and through the field study to show these obstacles and put forward solutions to be a program for correct planning and decision-makers to achieve agricultural-industrial development that leads to agricultural-industrial integration in Anbar Governorate

Geo-economic analysis of the spatial and sectoral distribution of the human workforce in Anbar Governorate for the period 1997-2019

Qilal S. Abdulrasul; Yaseen Hameed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 60-79

The study of the reality of employees and their spatial and sectoral distribution at the level of Anbar Governorate is the main pillar towards achieving a balanced spatial development between the districts of Anbar Governorate, and it is evident that there is a discrepancy in the distribution of the workforce among the districts of the governorate and the existence of a sectoral variation in its distribution at the level of the basic sectors (agriculture, industrial and service), the population of the region Economic, while the size of the workforce of the human force in all economic and service sectors has reached (38.3%) of the total economically active population, and this means that there is a major imbalance in the economic statistics to maintain the spatial and sectoral distribution of the human resources

The effect of diseases and pests on fruit trees in Anbar Governorate and ways to treat them

Karim A. Mukhlef; Khaled A Abdullah

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 80-108

The research dealt with the effect of diseases and pests on fruit trees in Anbar Governorate and the ways to treat them, in order to identify the most important diseases and pests that affect fruit trees in the study area and the impact of these diseases on the amount of production in order to identify the most important problems that work to defeat fruit trees in terms of productivity, as it aims to Search to find out the most important ways and means of treatment for those diseases that affect various fruit trees in order to reduce the impact of these diseases on the quality and quantity of fruits

Climatic Water Balance for Al-Rutba provine - Western Iraq

Ammar Y. Awwad; kasim A. Ramal

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 109-139

The research aims to review the climatic elements controlling the water balance in Al-Rutba provine, one of the Anbar governorates within the western plateau with an area of (92.753) km2, through analyzing data for the studied stations for the period from (1988-2018), and it became clear that the temperature rates ranged from (19.8-23) o, and the total rain between (91.81-141 mm). Wind speeds ranged between (2.9 - 5.3) m / s, and the annual actual evaporation ranges from (2906 - 3245.9) mm. The Thornthwaite equation was used to calculate the corrected transpiration evaporation and it became clear that the totals of the values ranged between (1055.6-1236.8) mm, and the (TOOD 2007) equation was applied to calculate the water balance and it was found that there were three months in which a water increase occurred at a rate of (23.7)%, and nine months occurred Water decrease by (96.3)%. The Thornthwaite drought equation was also used, and it was found that all studied stations are located in the dry climate with a coefficient ranging between (7.4 - 8.2)

Spatial Analysis Of The Reasons For Divorce In Anbar Province For The Year 2018

Inas M. Saleh; Bilal B. Alhiani

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 140-173

Marriage Is One Of The human bonds of great sanctity. Thus Marriage And The Consequent Aim which Is Establishing A family , has become one of the most important pillars of the establishment of societies . but when the marital life loses the most important pillar of its resurrection , which is affection and mercy between the spouses the crack in this entity of human bond begins to increase with the passage of time so that the matter of ending this marriage becomes the right solution to avoid what is harmful and ends in divorce . The research on the reasons leading to divorce is extremely important as knowing the cause of the problem is the first step in treating it and limiting its spread . Also , identifying the causes of divorce is an extremely difficult matter , And accumulation is known , as it is known that divorce does not come for On reason

Categorizing of soil viability of the sedimentary plain for agricultural production in Ramadi district

Hanan K.M; Khaled A Abdullah

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 174-199

The study aims to Categorizing the validity of the soil of the sedimentary plain in Ramadi district, as it included the physical properties (apparent density, real density, soil porosity), and the chemical included (organic matter, the degree of soil interaction, electrical conductivity, and some positive and negative ions), it was taken Samples from 23 provinces on both sides of the river, with a depth of (0-30) cm. The study found that the soil of the study area was classified into three varieties according to its suitability for agricultural use

Application of Aridity Indices in the Eastern Region of the Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaMohammed Hasan Mheisen

Muhammad A. Al-Qasim; Mukhtar M. Al-Nour

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 200-234

The foundations and criteria for the definition of aridity and the identification of dry regions varied from one researcher to another, the objective of this study is to measure the degree of aridity in the Eastern Region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and climatically classified. The methods followed by the study are the regional, historical, descriptive analytical and inductive approaches. The study relied on climatic data that were obtained from Meteorological Service and Environmental Protection for five meteorology stations, Qaisumah, Dhahran, Al-Ahsa, Hafr Al-Batin, and Dammam, during the period from 2000 to 2012. Six aridity indices: Lange, de Martin, Cousin, Thornthwaite, Koppen and Wilmey were applied to monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall and temperature rates. The results revealed that all months in the Eastern Region and all stations are classified as dry months according to the Kossin and Thornthwaite. The results also show that the seasons were characterized by varying degrees of aridity. With regards to seasons, the summer was the driest, followed by the autumn, while the aridity decreased during the winter and spring seasons. The study area was also characterized by the annual aridity according to the application of the Lang, de Marton, Koppen and Wilmy. The study recommended that the necessity of activating water-harvesting projects to make the most of varying rainfall rates, rationalize water consumption, and conduct studies concerned with the applied climate

Spatial analysis of the model car in the Iraqi city (Fallujah)

Abd ulrazzaq Mohammed Jabbar

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 235-261

Car parking places are one of the most important components of the Iraqi city, as these places are a component of urban transport and the same components of community services. Since the number of cars increased, the city suffers from the problem of unavailability of parking places and the reason is due to the failure to take these places into consideration when developing and implementing base diagram. The city of Fallujah suffers from the lack of parking spaces for the car, so some investors or owners of ramshackle residential plots have temporarily converted them into parking spots awaiting their conversion to commercial use as the research dealt with a general description of the car parking areas, as well as the description of the study area and its division into three areas: the market area or the city center and the second region, the popular clinics area and its adjacent therapeutic medical uses, industrial and commercial uses, and the third area the hospital and its neighboring uses, then dealt with Distributing parking places for the car and then comparing it with the planning standard (housing standard) and then analyzing the questionnaire form that was distributed to the three reviewers of the study area, and then analyzing the closest neighbor to the distribution shape of those places and it was found that the distribution is random. The study found that there were no parking places and became an obstacle to the movement of citizens in their movement and daily life, which led to the difficulty of obtaining the necessary services, especially the treatment trip, the shopping trip, the work trip, and the prevailing type of parking in the study area is parking outside the main street, this type is characterized by safety And the flow of movement and the lack of traffic congestion

An analysis of the ecological characteristics of the population of Heet district for the period 1997-2018

Buthaina Rahim Shawkat Al-Muhammadi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 262-289

The environmental composition is the distribution of the population according to the environment between the urban, rural and Bedouin. The research is limited to the study of the urban and rural population without addressing the Bedouin population because of their small numbers in the judiciary. The study of urban and rural population is very important in population studies because it illustrates the differences between them In terms of distribution, growth and composition, which is the result of different economic, cultural and social level, in this regard it is necessary to refer to the foundations and criteria used to differentiate between urban and rural.The study of the population of the district of Hit and know their demographic characteristics and their spatial and temporal differences for years (2018, 1997) revealed to us that the population of the judiciary was increasing numerically during the three census years. This increase is due to several factors including the development of economic activity, The increase in the natural growth rate of the population (ie, the increase in the number of births) as well as the migration to the judiciary.It is possible to say that some of them are due to natural conditions or their differences from one place to another. That place to provide the necessary necessities to live in it.

Geomorphometric Analysis of Abu Dalaih Valley Basin Using Geomatics Techniques and the Possibility of Investing it for Water Harvesting Purposes

Saja A. Barakat; Khalid S. Mohammed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 290-324

The study included a hydrogiomorphological evaluation of Abu Dalaya basin in Al-Jezira region for the water harvesting purposes, which an area reached (227 km2). Abu Dalaya basin contains three secondary basins, which are almost similar in their morphometric and hydrological characteristics, and most of them are close to the rectangular shape. The researcher used the integration between several data, such as Remote Sensing (RS) data, climate and ground data for the study area and its region, whereby the outputs from maps and figures were obtained by using Geographic Information System (GIS). For the purposes of water harvesting, the study adopted (SCS-CN) model to estimate the volume of surface runoff, and the results indicated that the study area is characterized by high runoff due to the presence the soils type(C) that are characterized by their inability to infiltrate water into the soil.The hourly data for the season (2018-2019) showed that the amounts of rain were large, ranging between (652-761 mm). Thus, this amount of water must be preserved, and thus four sites were chosen for the construction of earth dams in the study area. In addition, the results of those proposed dams for water harvesting proved that the quantities of water storage in them are uneven, but very large and sufficient for the various types of future investments

Model building of vegetation cover changes in Abbasid sub-district using SABI and NDVI algorithms

Mohammed Mohsin Abdullah

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 325-359

The current study focuses on building a model for vegetation changes in the Abbasid sub-district using the SABI and NDVI algorithm, as the research focused on studying the natural and human factors that affect vegetation cover, and then building digital models that depend on the mathematical algorithms obtained through satellite visuals in a region Spectral, through ARC GIS-based software processors and the Model Builder Extension, to make these models ready tools for obtaining the density of vegetation cover in any geographical area. When applying the two models, it became clear that the SABI model for the derivation of vegetative indices and algae was more accurate than the NDVI model for also deriving vegetative indices. The second model on two scales are (Band 4, Band 5) in Landsat 8. In addition, the SABI model works on deriving aquatic plants as well, while the second model cannot. From the application of the two models to monitoring the change of vegetation cover, it became clear that the region was experiencing a significant change during (30) years for the period (1990-2020) at the level of its agricultural provinces.

Morphometric Characteristics Of Al-Ratqa Valley Basin In The Western Anbar Plateau

Saadoun Musharraf Husain Jadei Al-Shabani

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 360-391

Al-Ratqa Valley is located in the western part of Iraq within the western Anbar plateau, and it occupies an area of (5509) km2, and it consists of six secondary basins and they differ in all morphometric characteristics. The study also included the natural characteristics of the area that have an effect on the spatial and morphological characteristics and the characteristics of the drainage pattern. And the geomorphological processes and the types of soils in the region, as for the general slope of the basin, it is from the west and southwest towards the east and northeast, as for the general climate of the region, it is desert, hot dry in summer and cold rainy in winter, and the number of basin ranks reached seven ranks, and that the quantitative method was followed in the geomorphological and morphometric analysis By relying on digital data obtained from topographic maps, aerial photos and satellite lmages, in the analysis of the morphometric characteristics of the basin drainage pattern and the spatial, morphological and topographic characteristics of Al-ratqa Valley basin

Dust storms and their environmental impact on the neighborhood's residential site (Anbar University)

Inam M. Ayed Inam M. Ayed; Inam M. Ayed; Ali M. Raja

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 392-407

Dust storms consider as a climate phenomenon that occurs most frequently in arid and semi-arid aries with a dry desert climate , and this applies to study area to the study area , particularly Anbar Governorate has the largest area of up to a third of the area of Iraq ,therefore it considers as a scene for the occurrence of dust storms , so its topographic composition and astronomical location contributes to their occurrence of the storms as well as the other effects of the pressure zones, longer dust storms can be consider as a negative indicator in terms of environment and life . The questionnaire shows especially in these two subjects that the predominant percentage of the population affected by their health , and this effect includes cases of suffocation , causes disturbances in the psychological composition of human person

Estimating the hazards of floods in the Gulasur Basin in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate - Kurdistan Region of Iraq

Jinan Rahman Ibrahim

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 408-428

The indicators values of the Morphometric Analysis of the Gulasur Basin, which has an area of 556.02 km2, as the ratio of elongation, rotation ratio and form factor, indicated that it is a highly rectangular basin. While the values of the relief aspects, which are represented by the relief ratio, the relative relief and Ruggedness number, indicated the high runoff and the low percentage of leachate in the basin. In addition to other indicators such as stream frequency, drainage density and bifurcation rate. And other hydromorphometric indicators had a hydrological response that reflected the volume of runoff, leg time and discharge rate, which led to a decrease in the reservoir potential of groundwater, and a high contribution to surface runoff. Thus, increasing the chances of water gathering in the main riverbed leads to an increase in the chances of flooding, however, the length of the distance traveled by the water from the top of the basin to the downstream makes the running water, moderately hazards waves with a late arrival.

Presenting preparatory students to educational channels on the Internet and the gratifications achieved from them

Hafidh Y. Al.Hiti; Mohammed S. Jbab

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 429-469

Among the alternatives made available by the Internet, we find educational sites and channels that contributed to maximizing the communicative impact of the educational process with its available readable, audio and visual elements, which enabled the student to benefit from their content effectively and in an easy and comfortable manner. The importance of this topic comes due to the multiplicity of educational programs on The Internet to include most of the disciplines and the expansion of the number of students’ audience who view these programs and follow them constantly to increase their understanding and understanding of their subjects or to use them as a complete substitute for the teacher and teacher due to the shortage of teachers or because of the weakness of teaching in general. The programs constitute an additional importance for what it will provide of theoretical knowledge on this subject, and what it will provide in the practical side of realistic results that the providers of these programs will benefit from in improving their level of performance and degree of efficiency in presenting lessons and scientific materials to the audience of preparatory students

Nazi Propaganda in Iraq 1933 – 1941

Abdulsalam Ahmed AlSamer

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 470-498

This research Seeks To study the German Nazi Propaganda activity in Iraq as a British sphere of infiuence, in which Germany seeks to gain the Iraqi public opininon to support its policy, aiming to confuse the British Policy in the region and achieves German interests.The time for this research extends from 1933 when the Nazis took power in Germany until 1941 and the movement of May ied by Rasheed Aali Al-Qaylani which failed letting the second British occupation start after that.The research aims at uncovering the trends of Nazi Propaganda in Iraq and how it was able to find a link between it and the Iraqi society, so as to gain standing up with the Nazi Movement disgruntling on the British policy, which is in control of things in Iraq after its occupation in 1941.The current research’s function is based on the use of historical approach depending on the description and analysis of historical data available.One of the most important findings of research is that the Nazi propaganda in Iraq outweighed the British Propaganda by its infiuence because it came in line with the national issues that were at the heart of the Iraqi people’s interest as well as the sympathy of Germany and its support for the demands of Iraqi people for dependence and Arab unity

University Youth’s Adoption of Social Networking Sites and its Implications for Social Alienation

Othman Mohamed A

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 499-526

This study aimed to identfy the effect of the use of social- networking sites on the social alienation of young people. The researcher used descriptive method in his study and relied on the question aire as a research tool in collecting in formation about the respondents and chose an objective sample consisting of (200) samples. The study concluded anumber of results 1-The withdrawal of the unviersity young people from their families and societies, and their sense of non-belonging to the red real reality and preference for virtual reality which ful filled their selt – being as they clain.2-The university young people tend to use sites more than other aetivites.

Habits and patterns of university students’ exposure to television programs on fitness and beauty, a field study of a sample of Baghdad University students

Salah Gh. Nouri Al.Hasani

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 527-554

The media is developing at an imaginary speed, and television is often the most widely used means by the general public, and one of the most important contemporary means of communication that man uses continuously (From the Kaiser family foundation). Therefore, the viewer is exposed to television and uses it, but for a certain purpose, and this use differs from one person to another. There are those who are exposed to television to develop the political dimension, so they find politics is the demand that they seek and want to satisfy, and we may find another person who loves sports and loves football or car racing. Others watch, and some viewers tend to have fun and fill their free time in any way, so they find entertainment is the best way to fill their time, and so on.This has led to the emergence of specialized satellite stations that seek to focus on one aspect of life, with interest in other aspects, but to a lesser extent. We have political, religious, sports, economic, lyrical, entertainment channels, etc., each of which specializes in its field. Its exposure, and with the spread of these specialized satellite channels, sports and cosmetic channels that focus on specialization in a large way, especially with regard to university students from a physical point of view, including sports channels specialized in fitness, diet, skin care, and other such channels, and the goal of this specialization is to attract the largest Number of viewers committed to these programs.

Iraqi radio Programs ' Violations of Social Values Analytical study of radio programs after liberating Iraqi lands from terrorism and start of elections

Safad Husam Hamoudi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 555-583

At a time when the radio stations are supposed to play an important role in promoting social values due to their role as a moral factor which is responsible of the relationship among individuals in societies, the production of radio programs in Iraq has been subjected to political, security and even technical influences. This led to commit frequent violations of such set of values. By submitting to the agendas of the influential forces in Iraqi society, and keeping pace with the changes in the media environment that required the following up of technical acceleration in order to reach the largest number of participants and followers of radio programs, regardless of professional media standards that involves respecting those values.The current study, titled (the Iraqi radio stations violating social values) addresses a very important issue, reflected by in the great challenge facing those values in Iraq, as a result of those radio stations' performance. This challenge escalates with the state of continuous change that Iraq is experiencing, in the security, political and social fields. As such, the researcher chose the temporal boundaries for his sample in an era that witnessed two contradictory variables successively. The first was represented by the official announcement of the liberation of all Iraqi lands from terrorism in the second half of 2017, which prepared for an unprecedented national rapprochement in recent years in the media discourse. The second was pivoted towards the beginning of political conflict, that proceeded the preparation for the legislative elections, shortly thereafter, at the early start of 2018.

The relationship between the United Nations an regional organizations and its impact on settling disputes by all means of settlement

Mazin S. Nassar; Fatima H.Salloumi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2021, Volume 2021, Issue 6, Pages 584-611

There is no doubt that the international and regional organizations are of great importance as they are considered to be the active and supportive actors in the maintenance of international peace and security . the jurists differed over their importance , especially regional organizations . there are jurists who are supporters of those organizations who went on to claim that those organizations are important as they play important roles in the international community . it has contributions to achieving the goals of the international community in terms of development, as well as in maintaining international security and peace, in addition to its contributions in other fields that contribute to the development of international relations, whether political, economic, social, humanitarian, and other various fields. The work of these organizations through various means to reach a settlement acceptable to the parties to the conflict. As there are many such means, between peaceful and coercive, and between political and legal