Volume 2020, Issue 2 - Issue Serial Number 1, Spring 2020


The Social and Educational Rights of the Child in Ancient Iraq in the Light of Cuneiform Texts

Hussein Ahmed Salman Al-Bawi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 1-28

The child constitutes an important element in ancient societies as is the case in our present time, because the marriage of a woman with a man does not flourish except through the process of bearing children whose survival depends on the care of both sexes for them, but the mother bears the greater part of the responsibility, especially from the beginning of her pregnancy until she gives birth. She puts him and nurses him from her breasts and makes sure that he is comfortable, and after he leaves her bosom, she and her husband teach him good habits and renounce bad habits, and even after he reaches the age of maturity, the mother remains keen on her son and fears for him from any harm that might happen to him

The Phenomenon of Excluding Scholars and its Effect in the Arab Islamic State

Bashir S. A; Abdul Sattar M. D

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 29-44

Many scholars and writers were subjected to exclusion. The reasons and charges that led to their exclusion were varied. Some of them were politically motivated, due to the opposition of the scholars and writers to the orientations of the authority. This was represented by an opposing position or slander from a hater or enemy. So many scholars were subjected to imprisonment, torture and beating. The research sheds light on these exclusions and their repercussions on the state and its policy

The wives of the Messenger of God Muhammad, may God bless him and grant him peace, to Al-Nuwair fi kitabah nihayat al'arb fi funun al'adabi

Taha Mekhlef Abdullah Ahmed; Eman .M. H

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 45-70

God Almighty has honored his Prophet Muhammad, may God bless him and grant him peace, that his bounty over the prophets, as he singled out many characteristics, including marriage to more than four wives, and they were mentioned by al-Nuwayri with eleven wives who entered them, and we have devoted the first section of this research to mentioning them, taking into account the sequence The history of their marriage with each one of them being mentioned in a separate biography from her marriage until her death, starting from his first wife, Khadija bint Khuwaylid, may God be pleased with her, and the story of her marriage to the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, as one of the women of her people in terms of money and lineage, so she offered herself to marry the Messenger of God May God bless him and grant him peace, because of the qualities of honesty and trust that she knew about him, so the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, accepted to marry her, so her father Khuwaylid took over her marriage and the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace, did not marry her in her life until God passed away.The second topic of this research mentioned the women who married and did not enter them, and we have detailed the discussion about them according to the sequence that was mentioned by Al-Nuwairi.

Al-Mu'tamid bin Abbad in Aghmat Prison

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 71-95

 
Al-Mu’tamid bin Abbad emerged in the political and literary history of Andalusia as a king who defends the battlefields and a poet whose poetry generations sing. His political and military news recorded the interest of historians and researchers, which led to the expansion of the narration of the incidents that Al-Mu’tamid Ibn Abbad contributed to making. This prince and poet was chosen to be the subject of my research This is out of loyalty to a man who gave history many achievements and facts that painted a true picture of the Kingdom of Seville in particular and the history of the cult kings in general. He employed all his actions in his poetry and in identifying the nation, especially the plight of imprisonment which was considered one of the great tribulations that caused deep pain in Al-Mu'tamid bin Abbad's life which consisted of two stages: a stage of advancement for glory, in which he dealt with his political life and history since he sat on the throne of the kingdom until his star began to fall. The second stage in which he depicted his life in prison and the suffering he experienced and the situations he was exposed to until his death.

The Role of Self-Influence on Arabic Islamic Civilization

Wafa’a M.Sahab

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 96-113

The concept of civilization varies according to the different perception of it from one person to another. Thus, there are many definitions of civilization. This diversity was reflected on a very important topic which is the role of self-influences in the establishment of that vast civilization that was and will remain the main source of all world civilizations, namely the Arab-Islamic civilization.
Knowing the role of self-influences and identifying them requires studying them, even in a brief way, so that we can benefit from them in the desired way.
This research will address the self-influences that were a direct cause of the establishment of the Arab Islamic civilization as the greatest civilization throughout history. The study focuses of self-influences as one of the important pillars in the flourishing of the Arab Islamic civilization until it reached the highest levels in all aspects of progress.
This research deals with self-influences and their role in the establishment of the Arab-Islamic civilization. 

Christian Evangelization and its Impact on Local Hawaiian Traditions as a Model

Enas Saadi Abdullah; Osama Adnan Yahya

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 114-135

The Hawaiian Islands are located in the center of the Pacific Ocean. Its capital Honolulu, called firstly Sandwich Islands, It is of volcanic origin surrounded by coral reefs. Its population is ethnically Polynesian. It was discovered by Captain James Cook (1728-1779) who lost his life during his third and last trip during an armed conflict with the local population. Hawaii became part of the United States in 1898. The evangelization of Hawaii began at the hands of American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (1820). These missions have had a significant impact on the local traditions of the inhabitants of these islands. Their impact has appeared remarkably in their local legends, some of which were influenced by the Bible as will be seen in the present study.

Sheikh Mohan Al-Khair Allah: His Life and Political Impact in Iraq1890-1956

fahad Imusslim Zghayer

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 136-172

 
The Iraqi figures, especially the clan ones, who  appeared on the political stage during the last Ottoman era (1869-1918) and the beginning of the British occupation and the royal era (1925-1958) received great attention from researchers. These researchers shed light on the role of these personalities in the events that Iraq witnessed, but there are other clan figures who did not receive the required attention.  Among them is Sheikh Mohan Al-Khairallah, the sheikh of the Al-Shuwailat clan, who was described as a “bully” in the House of Representatives, as he was a member of it for more than two-thirds of the electoral cycles, and who also played a prominent role in Thawrat Aleishreen.
 The research entitled" Sheikh Mohan Al-Khairallah, his life and political role in Iraq (1890-1956)" includes an introduction and two sections. The first section deals with his personality and social formation, and the second section aims to know his political impact. The conclusion sums up the findings.

Iraq and the International Competition in the Middle East after 2017

Arkan Ibraheem Adwan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 173-193

The study reviews the most important factors that determine the Iraqi position on the US-Iranian competition, its expected repercussions, and the strategies of the competing forces in managing the crisis, as well as determining the official Iraqi position, the policies that the Iraqi government can follow and their results. The study concludes that Iraq, by virtue of its geographical location, and the political, security and economic reality, is at the heart of the crisis, and that its potential repercussions will affect more than one side. Consequently, the Iraqi government must adhere to the policy of neutrality towards both sides of the crisis, avoid bias, and support all efforts that seek to find peaceful solutions through diplomatic means, and reduce the intensity of escalation between the two sides.

The Water Project of the Israeli Middle East Channel and its Geopolitical Repercussions on Arab Water Security

Faris Mazloum Makk

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 194-227

Jordan and Israel agreed on the establishment of a water navigation project linking the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. The agreement included in the light of the peace agreement between them in 1994. The project is the largest economic cooperation between the Zionist entity and Jordan in decades and a huge project represented in the establishment of a water link with a length of two hundred kilometers between the Mediterranean, the Red Sea and the Dead Sea, the lowest point on the surface of the earth.  They have already signed an official agreement. The cost of the project may reach eleven billion dollars, with a clear and influential presence of the World Bank and the United States as sponsors of the agreement and donors among the countries funding the project. Israel gave Jordan an incentive to sign represented by fifty million cubic meters of water annually provided by Tel Aviv to Amman from the Sea of ​​Galilee.

The Mosque and Shrine of the Prophet Joshua in Baghdad and its Importance in Religious Tourism.

Saadi I. Al-Darraji

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 228-243

This paper is concerned with the study of one of the submerged shrines in Baghdad ancient cemeteries , which is the mosque and shrine of the Prophet Joshua (peace be upon him) because of its great historical importance as one of the prophets mentioned in the Holy Qur’an. The study focuses on the construction in all its historical stages, and enumerated the maintenance work that the shrine underwent during and after the Ottoman era, and the additions and changes that occurred to it, which led to complete or partial changes to some of its original features.
The research seeks to document one of the important religious landmarks in Baghdad with a descriptive study that relied on field visits, and to develop an accurate chart showing the shape and measurements of the shrine, and to reinforce that with photographs. The building is regarded as part of the cultural heritage of Baghdad Governorate, in the hope of protecting it from demolition and alteration carried out by some concerned institutions under the pretext of renovation and maintenance.
The study reached results that the researcher hopes will be useful in the field of academic studies specialized in late Islamic antiquities, as they document one of the important landmarks in Baghdad. It contributes to revealing important aspects of religious architecture to make it a link in the chain of shrines recorded in the world of architecture.

Geographical Analysis of Deprivation by Infrastructure Indicators in Al - Rutba City.

Amjad Raheem Mohammed Al- Kubeisi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 244-266

In recent decades, various indicators and statistical methods have been developed to measure deprivation levels in the economic and social fields. These indicators aim to identify the areas that are deprived in some of these fields in order to know the development needs of these areas, and thus to focus on the development and development processes in these areas. . ینة الرطبة  بما یحقق الرفاهیة  والعدالة الاجتماعیة لسکان مدینة الرطبة . من الحلول والبدائل  لمعالجة الحرمان فی خدمات البنى الت The infrastructure of any city represents its cornerstone because it is the basis of urban growth. The research deals with the indicators of infrastructure in Hashmiyah city in the far west of Iraq within the province of Anbar, which is administratively important, to indicate the rates of deprivation in infrastructure services for that city. The availability of these services efficiently contributes to the formation of a healthy and peaceful environment for the city through which people can perform their daily activities. This plays a positive role in the development and progress of the city of Rutba due to its administrative importance for being a gateway to the country overlooking the three sisterly countries. In addition, the city has seen an increase in its size, which reflected on the increasing demand for infrastructure services. The field study was adopted and the application of planning criteria to measure those services to determine the deprivation and deficiencies of those services in the city. By applying those standards, it became clear that the city suffers from a clear deprivation a large scale of many of these indicators, while some of them are almost completely zero. This requires a study to provide a set of solutions and alternatives to address the deprivation in infrastructure services and development in order to achieve the welfare and social justice of the residents of the city of Rutba.

A Geographical Analysis of Landfill Sites in the City of Ramadi and the Possibility of Investing in the Production of Electrical Energy

Salah A. M; Nazeer S. H

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 267-295

The study aims to investigate the sanitary landfill sites in the city of Ramadi, as the problem of solid waste is the main problem which concerns the management of all municipal councils, especially cities, due to the narrow land area, the amount and size of massive solid waste, and negative consequences on public health. The study links the population uses with the waste quantities generated in the city of Ramadi, and showed the geographical distribution of landfills in the city and the environmental impact on it. The study includes studies on extracting energy from solid waste and the amount of energy generated from solid waste in the city of Ramadi which is measured by the following equation (thermal value of the material = (kj / kg)] × 10-3). The total heat capacity of solid waste in the city of Ramadi is  525,097.333105 (kW.h / year) kWh.

Cultivation of Grape Trees in Bani Hashish District and the Economic Reality

Daris Abonashtan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 296-334

Grape trees are of great economic importance in the exploitation of low fertile lands and lands that are not deep. They are also important in stabilizing the soil and preventing erosion. Added to that, the increasing importance of its fresh fruits such as raisins, juice, and its medicinal uses and the use of its leaves as animal food. Thus, the study aims to highlight the role of the natural assets of the Directorate and their suitability for the cultivation of grape trees, to clarify the methods used for cultivation, and emphasize the economic role of the grape product in creating an economic and social dynamism in the Directorate.
   We conducted this study on a random sample of 50 farms representing 10% of the grape growers in the Directorate, conducted a series of interviews in the field of grape cultivation in the Directorate, and relied on the descriptive analytical and statistical approach in addition to processing statistical data from tables and figures through the program spss, and ArcGIS 10.2 to create the appropriate maps.

Geographical Analysis of Educational Services in the Golan Quarter in the City of Fallujah

Abdul-Razzaq Muhammad Jabbar Al-Muhammadi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 335-358

 
Services, in general, including educational services are considered one of the fundamentals of the society ,whether at the level of the city or region or their parts. The study area, Golan Quarter, is part of Fallujah City, which is considered the biggest in size and population and the oldest. This quarter contains 21school divided into kindergartens, one nursery,  newly-opened fast-track education schools as well as elementary, intermediate, secondary and Secondary vocational Schools providing education to all the residents in the quarter.

Geographical Distribution of the Illiterate Population in Anbar Governorate for the years 1997 and 2018

Omar N. A.M; Iyad M. M

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 359-388

Theresearch  deals with  the geographical  distribution of the illiterate  population in Anbar province for the years (1997 And 2018 ). The results of the census  for  the  year (1997) and  the  field study (questionnaire ) were adopted, as the data  for the number of illiterate people for the year (2018) are unavailable. The research concludes  that the decrease of the percentage of illiterate people is due to many reasons (social and economic) and many more. The  research  sums up  many conclusions and recommendations that may help those who are responsible for eliminating illiteracy in the province.   

Geographical Analysis of Population Growth Trends of Al-Anbar Province Population and its Future Prospects for the Period (1947 - 2007)

Omar F. K; Caesar A. A; Hussein A. A

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 389-427

The research aims to reveal population growth trends for the population of Anbar province. The importance of population growth is highlighted because it helps to know population changes in the past, present and future, which provide the planners with the necessary data to use in order to set general lines for planning programs in various areas of economic and social life, Therefore, population growth has become one of the phenomena emphasized by the population geographers. Thus, it addresses the natural characteristics of Al-Anbar Province, which are the ground upon which the phenomenon of population growth trends emerges for the population of Anbar province. It also detects some variables affecting the variance of the population growth of the province population and its analysis temporally through identifying the methods of measuring population growth rates. The study finds out that the natural characteristics played a major role in affecting the population characteristics, in addition to the decrease in the number of males versus the increase in females number. It also concludes that there is a continued growth of the population of the province with high growth rates and in a stable level during the study period. The study recommends to balance the population growth rates during the study period, and to educate families about the importance of registering child births immediately after giving birth to have more accurate and realistic data. It recommends too that the state’s population policy should be clear and announced in regard to reproduction in order to be consistent with the Iraqi society perspectives and the aspirations of the state. 

Climate Changes and its Impact on Change of Crop Structure in Anbar from the period (1980-2014

Laith Mhmood Khalfh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 428-460

The research aims to examine the impact of climate changes on the growth and productivity of wheat crop in Anbar province. The analytical approach is adopted to show the impact of the climate elements and phenomena which are represented by solar radiation the minimum and maximum temperature, wind, atmospheric humidity, rains and evaporation on wheat production and its maturity date, the geographical distribution of the wheat plantation areas, the production quantities and its role in the agricultural economy, as well as the compatibility of the climatic characteristics in the study area with requirements of agriculture and quantity and quality of produced wheat which is considered the people's main food and of great economic importance. The research relies on the data of three climatic stations in the study area. These stations are Ramadi, Haditha and Al Qaim over a period from (1980 -2014) as a well as agricultural data matching to total duration of the study.

Problems and Challenges facing the Transport Sector in Anbar

Huda Hussein Ali

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2020, Volume 2020, Issue 2, Pages 461-490

The research aims to reach some suggestions and solutions to the problems of the transport sector, which plays a major role as one of the pivotal sectors for laying the foundations of the infrastructure and the basis of the development process, especially in Anbar, where the transportation sector suffers from challenges without the possibility of promoting the rest of the other sectors. This sector can promote trade, developing exchange, increasing investment opportunities in the province, and strengthening its economic and trade relations with other provinces and the outside world. Anbar has an important strategic location and is the border port to the Gulf of Aqaba (Jordan), which contributes to the export of oil, industrial and service products, and the import of goods and services, As well as the road linking it with Jordan and Syria, making it a regional commercial center that has great importance in raising the level of economic activity within the province, increasing the income of the population and improving their standard of living. Thus,  the Gulf of Aqaba can be linked to the port of Basra, The purpose is to focus on the problems of land transport, especially on vehicles which occupy the first place in transportation in the governorate, which has a vast area and a large population weight. This will lead to an increase in the population activities, especially cars of all kinds, sizes and numbers, especially in city centers that suffer from overlapping land uses, irregular street network, traffic congestion, and a shortage of parking spaces. The study seeks to come up with a set of solutions and suggestions for development of transport in the province and to reduce traffic congestion and accidents.