Volume 2019, Issue 6, Spring 2019

The role of the Khalajis in the opening and construction of Hindu forts and castles 689-720 A.H. / 1290-1320 A.D.

Israa B. Al–Mohammadi; Iftikhar A. Al–uqudi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2019, Volume 2019, Issue 6, Pages 1-27

The research deals with the role of Khalijis in the opening of the fortresses and the Hindu castles and building them 689-720 / 1290-1320, through which we highlighted the definition of the Geography of the Hindu country, highlighting the definition of the Hindu state. The term Hindu country currently includes the countries of the Indian subcontinent: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal, and not only India. The root of the term Hindus is a geographical term that has a wide meaning at first and has no religious connotation, However, this term has lost its broad geographical meaning to most scholars and writers and has become an expression of the ancient religion of India.Fortifications were a prominent feature of the Hindu Cities, whether natural or architectural fortifications that developed by the population of the country, The mountain ranges, hills and rivers were considered natural obstacles hindered the progress of many invaders and conquerors, especially the Islamic Army (conquerors of the Hindus), where it stood to prevent advancing army like an impervious dam. As well as the castles and forts created by the country's own inhabitants, who had a military character, That prompted them to pay attention to the construction of fortresses and castles to protect their cities from the dangers, Where their country was wide-ranging and divided into several kingdoms, In addition, the fortifications, since early periods of the country's Hindu history, symbolizes to the Kingdom's strength and sovereignty


The development of Islamic studies in the city of Fustst in the Omayyad era. Hammad Farhan Hammadi

Hammad Farhan Hammadi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2019, Volume 2019, Issue 6, Pages 28-39

This research aims to know the position of Islam and the companions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (may God bless him and grant him peace) on thought and culture after liberating the country of Egypt.The Arab liberation of Egypt was not limited to its Arabization and spread of Islam among its people, but rather contributed to the emergence of an Arab culture that began to grow gradually until it became a monumental civilization that has its origins and advantages. It is noticeable that the Arab culture of Egypt was religious in the beginning, like other Islamic provinces, because most of the scholars who appeared at that time were from the companions of the Messenger Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) who accompanied the armies of liberation, then the culture began to develop into the introduction of secular and philosophical sciences.



Khalil Jalil Bakheet al-Qaisi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2019, Volume 2019, Issue 6, Pages 40-61

The island of Qusara distinguished by its geographical site between Europe and Moroccan Africa cause it lay in the middle of the Mediterranean sea. This island was suppressed under the Arab Muslims since the second century A.H., and remained of Islamic religion, Arabic culture till the fourth century A.H. It as the connection ring between Europe and the Arab land; from it transformed the Islamic Arabic knowledge and sciences to Europe, so as the matter with Sicilia, Kibris and Andalusia; add to that the Arab Muslims transferred different kinds of corps like cotton and citrus fruits, etc., therefore it became an important source for the population and the commercial exchange with Italy, Genoa, Pizza, Sicilia and etc. Although its subduing to the Norman's role, but Muslims treated as local natives by Rodger II and his successors; this state continued until the fall of Andalusia by the king of Castile (897A.H.), when he dismissed them from there, by that event the curtain closed on the last Islamic Arabic existence in this land


Cultural mixture between the conquerors and the Arabs Levant countries(Beyond the River as a Model)

Shaymaa Fadhel Al Razauk

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2019, Volume 2019, Issue 6, Pages 62-87

After Khorasan was finally inaugurated in 31 AH / 653 AD, in the succession of Uthman bin Affan (may Allah be pleased with him) and in the state of Abdullah bin Amer bin Kariz, governor of Basra, the attention of Muslim Arabs towards the country beyond the river in order to annex new areas of the Arab Islamic state, Despite the geographic difficulty of the country beyond the river, the determination and determination of the Arab and Muslim fighters has erased those difficulties. The settlement of some Arab tribes in Khorasan was an important axis in the process of the Arab conquests in the country beyond the river. This led to the stability of the families of the fighters from encouraging to move to the country beyond the river after the number of Arab Muslim residents in Khorasan. This orientation and stability in the country beyond the river until the latest kind of cultural fusion between the expatriates and the indigenous people, both in Khorasan or the country beyond the river, until the emergence of a new generation open to the folds of Islam, after the entry of many people of some cities in the country beyond the river Islam, and took the world Collect For the water and the jurists and the various sciences that all communities reported


Al-Bulgar State Through the Journey of Bin Fadlan in (309H/921M

Thaier Noman Miseer

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2019, Volume 2019, Issue 6, Pages 88-108

Ahmed bin Fadlan wasn’t a famous man , but he was messenger for the Abasisn Al-Muqtder Belallah (282 - 320A.H / 895 - 932A.d) successor to the Bulgar state basing by Islamic east for Implementation for the successor orders for collecting some money for building a mosque in the Bulgar state . It was a request from the Bulgar King who became Muslim from short time and he want to blowing before another countries , and to say that the Muslims successor build a mosque for them for the rank an status because all the countries beside the bulgur from the oral sea to the Caspian are Jewish countries , hoe that the successor send bin Fadlan with a messenger to the Bulgar King


Siege Of The Soviet Union Of West Berlin 1948 - 1949 " Documentary Study "

Ayad Tariq Khudair Alwani

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2019, Volume 2019, Issue 6, Pages 109-132

After the end of the Second World War, the German capital (Berlin) was divided between the victorious countries. The allies led by the United States adopted a special policy in the areas that fell under their occupation in order to be a barrier against the aspirations of the Soviet Union. This contributed in deepening the gap between the western and the eastern camps. Consequently, the Soviet Union began to besiege western Berlin in order to embarrass the position of the Western Allies among the population of western regions in Germany. However, the Allies tried to stand against the Soviet policy by supplying the besieged Berlin's population with the necessary needs of living by making an air bridge. As a result, the Allies won a fame of moral and human treatment among the residents and they could gain the hearts of Berlin's population and bring them to their side too. At the same time, the Allies could close the doors before the Communist influence, as it will be shown in this research


(The secret sale of US weapons to Iran 1985-1986) Iran- Contra

Huda Jassim Mansour

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2019, Volume 2019, Issue 6, Pages 133-161

Iran - Contra is considered one of the most prominent issues during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988 ) this issue Represent selling American weapons secretly to Iran through Israel during Ronald Reagan's second presidential term (1981-1989). The research discuses the way In which weapon deals were signed with the Iranian side in order to release the American hostages who were kidnapped in Lebanon by pro-Iranian groups, and moreover the research explains the problems inside after breaching officials in the American administration the laws to complete These transactions using funds resulting for financing Contras movement opposed to the Government of Nicaragua because of the dangerous policy of that government on the security of the United States of America . It also discusses the implications of this case on the American and the Iranian sides


The Psychological Energy and its Relation to the Vocational Indulgence for the Employees of University of Anbar

Safaa H. Turky; Hala K. Saugher

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2019, Volume 2019, Issue 6, Pages 161-197

The current research aims at finding out the relation between the psychological energy and the vocational indulgence for the employees of the university of Anbar in accordance with some demographic variations such as sex ( males – females) and the duration of the job. The two researchers, in order to achieve the purposes of the research, have prepared two measures, one is for the measurement of the psychological energy consisting of (56) items and the other one is for the vocational indulgence having (52) items experimented on a sample that consists of (320) male and female employees among them (953) are from females and the rest is from females who have been chosen by stratified random way. Data, after being collected and analyzed statistically, they show that the sample of the research has shown a high rate of psychological energy and the individuals of the sample have got a vocational indulgence. The two researchers have recommended the necessity of multi-means availability to raise the level of the psychological energy of the employees that reflects upon their vocational indulgence as well as conducting studies on the psychological energy and its relation with some variations like the psychological health and the ambition level


Awareness of the Entrepreneurship Culture of Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University Students in the Light of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Vision (2030): An Educational Rooting Study

Hanan Attiah ALtouri AL Juhani

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2019, Volume 2019, Issue 6, Pages 198-261

The present study aimed to identify the awareness level of the entrepreneurship culture among the Princess Nourah University students and the extent to which they possess the skills of entrepreneurship in order to propose a set of future proposals to enhance the culture of entrepreneurship in the light of the future vision of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study participants were 368 students who were assigned according to the variables of "faculty, grade, father's work, mother's work". The results of the study indicated that the study participants have higher degrees of entrepreneurship culture and skills. The Faculty of Management and Business students were more agreeable to the second dimension (the possession of entrepreneurial skills) than their peers at the Faculty of Education. The participants of the study whose fathers working at (governmental circles) are more agreeable to the possession of the entrepreneurial skills than those whose fathers working in non-governmental circles. The participants of the study whose mothers working at (governmental circles) are more agreeable concerning the ownership of the entrepreneurial skills than those whose mothers working in other work. The study recommended maintaining higher levels of entrepreneurship culture awareness among Princess Nourah University students. The study also recommend that the universities should organize lectures and awareness seminars, forums and conferences, courses, training programs and workshops which address the concept of Islamic entrepreneurship and spread the culture of entrepreneurship. Universities should also work hard to consolidate, strengthen and highlight the role of entrepreneurship in the light of societal changes, contemporary challenges and the vision of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2030 in terms of enhancing the women role in the development and the importance of their empowerment in society, guaranteed by the Islamic Shari'a


The role of developed Arabic language curricula in improving Arabic language skills Primary school students in Saudi Arabia From the perspective of teachers of Arabic language

Mona bint Ahmed Alromaih

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2019, Volume 2019, Issue 6, Pages 262-396

The present study aimed at identifying the effectiveness of the “New Arabic Language Courses for the primary and intermediate educational stages” in developing learners’ listening and speaking skills. A questionnaire was developed by the researcher to collect data. It included four basic listening skills and four basic speaking skills. The items under these basic skills were developed in light of the specifications of the New Arabic Language courses, recently developed in K.S.A. The questionnaire was administered to a sample of (874) teachers in the male and female primary schools. The results indicated that primary school learners achieved a high levels of mastery of the basic listening and speaking skills. However, they did not achieve well on the listening and speaking skills related to higher levels of thinking such as: evaluating a listening material and giving an oral presentation. So, the researcher suggests that more research is needed to identify the problems that led to students’ low level of these important skills


The effectiveness of an educational program based on the strategies of mental Arithmetic in the Mathematic communication among the Female Students of the Intermediate Second Class

Nadia s. alamily; Abdulwahid M. Mohammad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2019, Volume 2019, Issue 6, Pages 297-434

The sample consisted of (64) students divided into two groups. The experimental group (33) student studied by using the tutorial, the control group (31) student was studied in the traditional way. The test of mathematical communication included five skills (Listening, reading, writing, speaking, and representing ). The test consisting of (40) questions , for each skill (8) questions. It was adopted in its revised grading system, and consists of two parts First: written test for the skills of( listening, writing, Representing), the second is an oral test of skills (reading, speaking) . The cykometric properties of both were confirmed. The appropriate statistical means were used. The experimental group was superior to the control group In the mathematical communication test


To what extent the students of high basic stage for 21st century skills in Palestine

Magdy Said Aqel; Sohair Saleem Abed Azzam; Eman Homed Abumusa

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2019, Volume 2019, Issue 6, Pages 435-474

The aim of the study was to identify the extent to students' basic stage of 21st century skills in Palestine. In order to achieve the objective of the study, the researchers chose the analytical descriptive method. The study sample consisted of (120) female students of the primary stage, and the first axis (creativity and innovation) has the highest percentage (80%), and there are no statistically significant differences at a level of significance (α≤ 0.05) between the degree to which students possess the skills of the twenty-first century according to the variable grade (seventh - eighth - ninth) and variable (the academic rate). The study recommended preparing workshops for teachers to raise awareness of the importance of developing the 21st century skills for students to qualify them to solve the problems of the age. Provide all modern means and activities that develop the students' skills and thinking and increase their ability to solve problems, as well as the interest of educators in the skills of the twenty-first century and integrated into the curriculum


The Effect of (KUD) Strategy in the inductive thinking for the students of Fifth scientific of Chemistry subject

Ahmed Laibi Hussein

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2019, Volume 2019, Issue 6, Pages 475-498

The recent research f aims to identify from:" The Eeffect of (KUD) Strategy in the inductive thinking for the students of Fifth scientific off Chemistry subject "The researcher has formed the following zero hypothesis as to achieve the goal of the research : There is no statistically significant difference at the level of (0.005) betweens the averag grade of the student in the experimentals group who studys, according to this (KUD) strateg and the grades off this students of this controly group whos studed accordinge to the regular methods in th inductive thinking test.The experimental design was selected form (75) Fifth scientific students, which were divided into two controls and experimental groups. The tuo groupses are equalized in the followings variableses:(the chronological age in months, previouses information test in chemistry, previous chemistry achievement and written communication test.(The researcher adopt the tool of recerch, the inductive thinking test. The test consisted of (36) objective items off the typy of multiple choice weth four achternatives. That’s the repir it from salih(2017).A number of appropriate statistical methods have been used, including Alpha Krombach, Keoder Equation-Richardson 20, T-test.The results have showed that there was an effect of the KUD strategy in the collection of chemistry and inductive thinking among Fifth scientific students. In lightes of the research resultses, the researcheer recommended a numbr of recommenadations and suggestions