Volume 2018, Issue 5, Spring 2018


Partisian Plurality and the Culture of Anarchy

Islam Fawzi Anas Qutob

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 1-20

This paper seeks to show that random plurality leads to chaos spread and here, exactly, lies the significance of moderation as a middle state necessary to achieve societal security. The paper deals with this idea on the level of the explosive spread of political parties that appeared in Egypt in the wake of January 25th, 2011. This led to uncontrolled chaos in the Egyptian political life and consequently affected social situation directly. But when June 30th, 2013 restored control to Egyptian scene balance was soon restored to political life especially in partisan practices. Yet, there remain a need to renew political discourse to cope with the requirements of the masses and social changes.The paper aims to explore the extent of political moderation after June 30th, 2013 against the background of the spread of partisan chaos culture in the wake of January 25th, 2011. The paper adopts the analytical method in its treatment of available data and experts' views. The paper draws on the periods before and after June 30th, 2013 as a model of study.The most important findings of the paper are:•The formation of parties after June 25th is chaotic in nature as some of these parties lacked the legislative cover and constructive goals.•In view of the spread of the culture of chaos consequential to multiparty after June 30th parties achieved a sort of relative moderation. •Political parties made important progress towards social security in cooperation with state institutions after June 30th.The paper recommends a renovation of the political and cultural discourse of the parties to meet the societal requirements. Finally, the paper suggests a theoretical approach to political moderation under the name of "preparation and activation" which comprises formal moderation "preparation" and applied moderation "activation."

 

References of the Political Discourse in the Holy Quran Critical and Analytical Study in the Field of Political Sociology

Hamdan Ramadan Mohammed Al-Khalidi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 21-45

This paper sheds light on the importance of the references of political discourse in the Holy Quran, especially from the perspective of sociology of Islamic politics because of the distinguished traits of this discourse from other speeches. This paper is a critical attempt to extrapolate this discourse, its nature, characteristics and mechanisms of its production. The references of political discourse in the Holy Quran is the system of assets, rules and fundamentals that underlie the system of government in Islam. It regulates the relationship between the authority and the nation, determines the responsibilities, rights and duties as stated in the Holy Quran and the Prophetic Law (Sunnah). Moreover, this paper focuses on the process of renewal of political discourse and diverse areas of renewal and the most important obstacles that hinder this process. Addressing the problems of the reality of the Islamic political discourse should be through looking at the origins of the Qur'anic, prophetic and rational discourse, and diligence according to the jurisprudence of the approaches. This is so to bridge the gap between the future view for political discourse and the reality and its dilemmas. These studiousness views try to discover the defect in the contemporary political Islamic performance. It also aims at seperating between political realism and its causes, its idealism and principles, and how to achieve the interim goals without compromising the final objectives and how to deal with the existing regimes. As the doctrinal origins of the faith of the political discourse of the Quran based on the political system of the Islamic state is no longer the same in the culture of Muslims today, after the demarcation of the parameters of the interpretation and moral distortion of its significance. It is done in order to consolidate the questionable discourse that governs the reality of the nation today by its authoritarian systems of different forms and types . This reality can only be changed by returning to the Qur'anic discourse and understanding it correctly. Therefore, the paper aims to study the political discourse of the Quran and its contemporary methodological approaches to uncover the findings of modern studies and the efforts of Arab linguists and orientalists in the field of discourse analysis. It also aims to provide a vision on the new paths in the Quranic studies by determining the intellectual and scientific perceptions of political Islam in the building of the state. The researcher used the inductive,and deductive method to analyze the subject. The importance of this paper is to highlight the role of the political discourse in the Holy Quran in the development of political integration in our societies by changing the intellectual, cultural and religious structure of individuals to cope with the current times and developments. Moreover, we try to analyze the scientific and practical content of the concept of political discourse in order not to be a mere a motto in the current facets of societies. The researchers also try to highlight the actual benefit that can be derived from its use in analyzing social and political transformation in our society.The researcher arrived at several results, including:1- The references of the political discourse in the Holy Quran contributed to the process of social change, which was sought to work on building the Muslim society according to the orders of Allah and Sunnah.2 - The Islamic political discourse in the Holy Quran has a great impact in directing the human being and preparing his energies to face the various changes of life towards moral perfection, and away from the taboos and speculations that harm and destroy the country and spoil the minds and conscience.3 - The frequent call to renew the Islamic political discourse in the Holy Quran in recent times led to the abuse of religion and its purposes.4- The Islamic political discourse must be based on science, justice, jurisprudence, people's conditions, and distance from all fanaticism and sect that began to attribute everything that they do in the name of religion and the rulings of Allah5. One of the most important elements of Islamic political and religious discourse is that it is based on moderation in order to achieve integrated societal change.Finally, the researcher presents some suggestions and recommendations to treat the problem of the study:1- Addressing extremist religious discourse with thought rather than violence by reforming the curricula and introducing modern media in the presentation of discourse.2. The Islamic political discourse should be directed to devising Islamic solutions and alternatives to all negative phenomena that lead to the collapse and dispersion of society.3 - Work on renewing thought and vision with all that is new and working to develop our Islamic political or religious discourse to cope with the present time.5-Islamic political or religious discourse should be positive in all aspects of life and benefit all people through achieving sustainable development and social justice.
 

 

Islamic Morals and Engagement with Non-Muslims.

AbdulMalik Mahmood Mohammed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 46-66

Islam is the religion of virtuous morality، the Quran and its constitution. In the Prophetic Sunnah، its manifestation، its details and its applications، Islam came to purify the human soul and elevate it by means of a noble morality in the form of principles، values، rules and laws.Perhaps it was provided for food and drink for its positive relationship with deeds، even if it is not a fact، then a person created it generously، where does he have to offer if he does not find the money? The acquisition of good morals takes place by reviewing the self for its actions and benefiting from the example and good companionAnd learning by practice and application and simulation، and may be lost some of these gains due to bad health، ignorance and emptiness and the corrupt environment، Whoever wants noble morals must work to achieve them، and be committed to honesty، loyalty and chastity and be patient and serious and perseverance and virility. The Quran is all noble rules، principles and values، the matter of virtue is the creation of noble and forbidding evil is the creation of noble and Quran is the strength of do and do not، and in the Prophet's Hadith there is a moral wealth expressed by the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and his virtues and ethics and qualities and reports in the coming and go and in peace and war. In my study of Qur'anic ethics، I used the analytical method، documented in the Qur'anic verses and Hadiths extracted from the books of the Sihah. I gave them examples of the sayings of our righteous forefather who lived the period of putting Islamic principles into practice in the life of the individual، family and society which has turned many of them into "a Quran walking on earth".The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) gathered among the people، the Muslim and the polytheistic، Christians and the Jews، the reluctant، even the hypocrite. The principle of politeness was far removed from the humiliation، weakness، complacency or complacency of the religion. Hence، I believe that we offer this noble Qur'anic ethics to the nation through the means available in the way that it can be delivered to the people to return them back to Islam، created by God Almighty to protect them from Evil and Satan and deviation that departs from the human mission that was originally found for it {And I (Allah) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone)} and achieve good and happiness for them in this world and the Hereafter.

 

Abstract The Religious Discourse and Its impact on the Young people (A socio-anthropological Reading of the Iraqi reality)

Hussein Khalil Ibrahim; Mohammed Jamil Ahmed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 67-82

The religious discourse is considered one of the most important factors affecting the Iraqi society, which is characterized by its general nature as religious. Thus, religious discourse contributes in one way or another to the stability of the society or not. If employed in a positive way, it leads to cohesion and social wellbeing. While if it is negatively employed, the disintegration and deterioration of society will be the result. This is what we observed after 2003 and how the moderate religious discourse managed to maintain the bonds of society and the continuity of life in a natural way. This situation does not last forever. This same religious discourse is exploited by some of the hardliners and extremists in a negative way, which reflected negatively on the Iraqi reality, especially young people who embrace dangerous thoughts and abnormal extremist ideas. These ideas led the society towards conflict and collision, which led, in turn, to imbalance in the public order of society on the social, political, economic or cultural side. Then instability and the country's exposure to various terrorist attacks bring about the country into chaos, threats, murder, kidnapping and explosions in most areas of Iraq. The present paper aims to identify the most important types of religious discourse and its impact on young people as well as identify the negative or positive repercussions of religious discourse in society. The importance of the paper lies in the fact that it deals with a sensitive subject touching the reality of the Iraqi living and its impact on an important and effective segment of the society, that is, the youth in addition to the theoretical and practical aspects of the research. The focus of this paper is on the renewal of religious discourse, the various areas of this renewal, the most important obstacles that impede this process, highlight the features of the crisis facing such renewal, and the role of the new religious discourse in correcting the image of Islam to the other

 

Political Discourse As an obstacles to Social Peace

Mahdy Mohammad El-Kassas

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 83-98

The Arab community has been suffering from extreme political rhetoric in recent years, creating violence, intolerance and conflict, which has fueled conflicts and created an atmosphere of extremism, intolerance and mutual violence.The study aims to dentify the manifestations of extremism in the political discourse and the factors that lead to it, and try to reach recommendations to reduce it, making the environment conducive to the growth and advancement of Arab societies.This study is a descriptive study aimed at describing the extremist political discourse, its causes and the results it can lead to.Main Findings of the Study are:- Politicians do not hesitate to exploit and use religion and manhood to achieve their political goals.-Politicians employ the need of poor and deprived people to justify their extremist rhetoric and mobilize supporters to reach their personal ends.The main recommendations of the study:- Putting frameworks and determinants of political discourse to preserve society and work on its cohesion.- Attention to the role and support of the family is the first line of defense broadcast by the values of love, tolerance and fraternity.- Attention to the media and its institutions is the watchdog and guardian of the flesh of the people and facing the extremist political discourse. Recommendations of the Study are: -Setting up frames and limiters for the political discourse to protect society and its coherence.-Paying attention to the role of the family and supporting it as the first line of defense and the source of the values of love, forgiveness, and brotherhood.-Paying attention to media institutions as the watcher and preserver of the unity of the people and the counter to the extremist political discourse

 

Moderation in the Thought of Malik Bin Nabi and its Role in Achieving Balanced Discourse and Societal Development: Reading in the Thought of Malik Bin Nabi

Muaminah Zakiyah Karfis

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 99-111

Islam has introduced the metaphysical vision to strengthen societal ties and focus them around the idea of benevolence in speech and actions. This is because paradoxes among masses are an unexplainable phenomenon in the Islamic community. Moreover, the individual’s volition usually springs from the general framework of the community being part of it. In addition, building homelands is based on building the human being. The more the community is coherent and ideas in it have functional roles, the more systematic the individual’s volition and the more competitive the efforts in its active move. In this light, the study attempts to highlight the role of thought of the great scholar Malik Bin Nabi in achieving coordination between moderation in the religious and political types of discourse being fundamental units in enhancing societal development. This can be achieved by answering the following questions; -What is the effect of the thought of moderation of Malik Bin Nabi in achieving balanced discourse and societal development?-Is the role of the preacher confined to correcting doctrines and religious details or in renewing the way of proposing things?-Does moderation in the religious and political discourse represent an intellectual or social necessity?-To what extent can moderate discourse contribute to achieving and fostering social development?To answer these questions, the study adopts the descriptive analytical approach to explain Ibn Nabi’s project which he called “Provisions of Development” within a small sample consisting of his two books; “The Role of the Muslim in the Twenty Second Century” and “The Birth of the Society”. The study concludes that moderation is a social necessity before being a religious obligation. The balanced discourse participates in communicating messages and achieving objectives without resorting to extremist tools for persuasion.

 

The Mind and Its Effect on Understanding Moderation in Religious Discourse

Hadi Obaid Hassan Al-Wasi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 112-127

Human beings take a long time in rational elegancy. So, we can address their mind directly. Addressing mind is more comprehensive, permanent and stable. Therefore; holy Quran was the miracle of Prophet Mahammad (PBUH) to the doomsday. Allah creates the mind and made it the source of trust. So, legal discourse addresses mind because it is the source of understanding and perception by which human will obeyed. Some predecessors said, “the mind is the case of Allah over all creators”. The Aim of the Study: the present paper hypotheses that if the human discourse is not rational, it will be meaningless and worthless. Accordingly, it should be reformulated to cope with time, place and different human communities. Methodology: the paper includes an introduction, three chapters and a conclusion. Chapter one is concerned with the concept of the mind, moderation and religious discourse which covers the definition of the mind, moderation and religious discourse linguistically and idiomatically. Chapter two deals with the restrictions of moderation in understanding religious discourse (this should be in agreement with the spirit of the age, mind and experience. So, we perceive that human discourse depends on basic restrictions of moderation whose benefits appear and establish in the mind and heart of new generations. Their values can be named as the restrictions of religious discourse) Chapter three tackles the consequent effects on obstructing the minds in understanding religious discourse (it shows that the discourse is misunderstood by their advocators more than opposed. Religion begins isolating from life to the extent that the pulpit disintegrates from the prayers inside mosque before isolating from society outside the mosque. In doing so, we lose the activity of a religious discourse. The results of the Analysis: certain things should be taken into concertation in human discourse, that is, addressing human mind and his innate sound nature. It is so because it addresses human mind and gives it its spiritual power. So, the weak will be strong. The defeated people will be victorious. Consequently, the discourse should be established on the standard of justice scale between passion and mind. Moreover, each discourse should be given its status and subject because the discourse nowadays is preoccupied with passion which made it crippled to confront reality.
 

 

The Call Of Islamic Philosophy To Moderation In Religious Discourse: Ibn Rushd As A Model- A Descriptive Study

Wafaa Kadum Ali; Ibrahim Rajab Abdullah

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 128-144

Because moderation in discourse is an important contemporary topic, we examined one side of moderation in this research. The title of our research is "the call of Islamic philosophy to moderation in religious discourse: Ibn Rushd as a model- a descriptive study". we collect texts that relate to this topic from the mothers of philosophical books. And then we have studied a descriptive study of what it is, or what it is in the philosophical sense. The second was entitled Ibn Rushd's call for moderation in the religious discourse, in which we dealt with Ibn Rushd's treatment of the issues of Islam and Islam. In beliefs. And we reached the conclusion that moderation and the call of others is the natural approach and adopted in the circles of Islamic thought in general, and that they are not pretentious in their call these and are not those who brag about them in vain as the case of the West today, the approach of moderation is not then the origin of this era, In his philosophical discourse, Ibn Rushd addressed subtle issues in the doctrines, in which religious scholars called for the commitment of moderation in these serious matters and to return to power in those texts that are clear to the public and the scholars As well. Finally, we must read our Islamic thought carefully to show the strengths and the disclosure for our future generations and benefit from them in the art and skills of dealing with each other as well as dealing with the other and revealing the goals and intentions of those who try to falsify and marginalize our original Islamic thought and accused him of lies and falsehoods
 

 

Role of the School in Casting Violence aAway 7 Boosting Moderation

Mowafaq Najem Abood

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 145-161

The problem of violence is one of the problems that Iraqi schools face in particular. This is undoubtedly rejected behavior in all its different forms and in all human societies. The phenomenon of violence and extremism is a very complex social phenomena because of its multiple dimensions and its intertwined causes and different patterns.Education is basically aimed at re-shaping and forming the individual who in turn contributes to the formulation and construction of society in a manner that satisfies the members of society and in accordance with its goals designed to preserve its identity and enable it to remain a cohesive and strong society .. The school must be safe and safe for all students , Because it is an extension of the family on the one hand and an institution created by society to play a social, cultural and educational role that aims to prepare the student for life. The method of treating the student in school is an important factor in the sense of security or not, the method of dealing with students is characterized by violence and cruelty and neglect and This was a threat to the student's psychological security in school and in life, leading to anxiety, fear, tension, cruelty, violence, deviation and extremism.The problem of research: The search for the phenomenon of school violence and its factors and social variables. The school has an important role in socialization as important as the role of the family in society, but it is noted that the school has abandoned its role in socialization and social control.Research Methodology The researcher relied on the analytical descriptive approach by studying the previous studies to find out the causes of violence in schools and analyze them and provide a logical explanation for this phenomenon and how the school can spread the culture of moderation and non-violence.The results of the research: The one that makes the violence increase in the school is the lack of attention to this problem as the focus of the interest on the limits of school responsibility only. The principle of regularity, commitment, respect for standards, regulations and respect for others in schools reflects the positive social interactions within the school. Education generally focuses on aspects of the educational process and education, and neglects the other aspects of humanity associated with the teacher and learner and the external and internal environment of the school community. This means that there is an omission and lack of attention from educational institutions on the psychological and social aspects and the educational environment and the psychological and social needs of students. Due to the lack of proper educational planning and in light of the disparity in the input of education on its outputs, unemployment and marginalization. And failure in educational development plans and educational curricula and means, where the objectives of education is dedicated to indoctrination, repetition and conservation without creating a creative manKey Recommendations: Use non-violent strategies for teaching and learning, and follow disciplinary measures not based on fear, threat, humiliation, or physical force. And legislation to prohibit corporal punishment in schools
 

 

Measuring the Level of Extremism in Students at the University of Anbar

Abdulkareem Ubaid; Ilaf Hameed Musa

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 162-181

Extremism is of different grades and various forms. It results in violence and terrorism and it renders others its target. The consequences of extremism (in all its forms; sectarian, racial, national, i.e.,) have become clear through out the incidents the country ghas passed through in the last years. They have been clear in forms of social violence and the lack of dialogue in the various issues. This is the most challenging issue which the community in general and the young students at the university level in particular encounter. What makes more dangerious is its widespread effect and the fatal problems associated with it. In light of this, the study represents a scientific field attempt on a sample of university students to understand their psychological and behavioural aspects and the negative psychological consequences resulting from the problems they encountered. The significance of this study comes from its contribution to develop councelling and curing programs pertaining to the problem addressed in this study based on its findings. Hence, the study aims to identify the level of extremism in students at the University of Anbar to highlight differences in extremism on two variables; type and specialization. To achieve the objectives of the study, a sample consisting of 400 (192 male and 208 female students) distributed into 6 faculties has been selected to build a psychological measure for extremism. Moreover, 300 (144 male and 156 female students) distributed into 4 faculties to represent the basic sample to achieve the objectives of the study. A measurement for extremism consisting of 48 prompts has been designed. Various types of reliability and validity of the measurement have been extracted. Using the SPSS, the following conclusions could be arrived at;1.Students in the sample of the study have a level of extremism slightly less than average. 2.There are no statistically significant differences at (0.5) in the level of extremism according to the two variables of type and specialization.In light of these findings, a number of recommendations and proposals have been put forward. These include; -Designing a practical strategy to confront extremism through the utilization of awareness programs in the audiovisual channels in order to mitigate the effects of causes of extremism.-Planning guidance programs, means and activities to confront extremism trends.

 

Conflict of Values in the Light of contemporary scientific Changes and its Relations to intellectual Security of University Students

Rabia Mani Zaidan Al-hamadani; Awan Kadum aziz al-Khashmani

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 182-204

System of values in all societies is subject to constant change due to the changes in society itself and the rise of new needs and requirements. But such changes caused inherited and acquired values to fluctuate and be unstable and an apparent weakness in the ability of many young people to select between what is correct and what is wrong of the conflicting values. This caused a crisis of values that greatly motivated youth to rebel and revolt against the values and beliefs of society. It caused a gap in their mentality and beliefs which subsequently turned into a focal point of their struggle with self and between self and society. This led to escalate the phenomenon of value conflict. The issue of intellectual security is important among the priorities of society in order to avoid the distraction of national feelings and the penetration of divergent intellectual trends. This paper seeks to identify the extent of value conflict and the extent of intellectual security. It also aims to identify the relationship between value conflict and intellectual security of university students by using the descriptive method of research. The sample of the study consists of 200 students of both sexes. The researchers prepared the instrument for measuring the degree of mental conflict and apply the instrument for measuring intellectual security previously constructed by Al-Janabi (2018). The researchers used appropriate statistical means, like T test for an independent one sample or two and Pearson coefficient. After analyzing the results of the study statistically the researchers arrived at the following findings: The level of value conflit among university students is generally between fair and high whereas the level of intellectual security for the study sample was weak. The researcher also found a negative correlation between value conflict and intellectual security in the sample of the study. The paper presents the following recommendations and suggestions: Attention should be directed to the spiritual side of the personality of the university student in order to enhance his/her values and will and immune him/her psychologically to preserve his/her individual and social identity and to safeguard value conflict and enhance their intellectual security.

 

Moderate Discourse and its Educational and Behavioural Role in the Life of Iraqi Children

Adnan Khalaf Sahi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 205-218

Several educational and psychological studies have made extensive contributions into the behavioural activity of children to identify the influential instruments affecting this behavior to put things in their logical context. The aim has been to arrive at an activiation of the positive model in the chidren behavior so as to render them active participants in establishing the human nature on a general social balanced and harmonious basis. Hence, moderate discourse within this orientation represents an active tool in building these behavioures to eventually render the society of a distinguished character immune against dissociation and corruption. In light of this, the study aimes to explore the role played by moderate discourse in the educational and behavioural life of Iraqi children. It formulated its theoretical framework in two sections. The first is ‘the concept of moderate discourse’ which focuses on exploring the psychological dimension of the concept of discourse. The second section is ‘raising the child behavioure through moderate discourse’. It addresses the criteria adopted in moderate discourse in rasing the child behavioure. Utilizing the theoretical framework in accordance with the literary approach, the study attempts to generally discuss the subject to arrive at some conclusions including;1.Moderate discourse is a phenomenon in the psychological texture which renders the child a typical life that respects human rights and fosters virtue and high values. 2.Moderate discourse disseminates various ideas which direct the child to take real steps towards the unity and intergration of the society.3.The society dynamism develops with the moderate discourse. Consequently, the child’s life in Iraq has become an active culture through the child expressed his/her ambitions to achieve typical values. 4.Moderate discourse has encouraged activity in the child’s personality and the aptitude to affect the present and elevate it to the meanings of unity and social integration

 

The Role of Intellectual Immunity in Confronting Idol Thought from the Perspective of Students at the University of Anbar

AbdulWahed Hameed Al-Kubaisi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 219-240

Some of the Iraqi cities have passed through impressive crises. The basis of these crises is the hegemony over the mentality of some of the people in these communities. The results of this hegemony are displacement and destruction. However, the question to be raised is what pushed these people to adopt alien thoughts? One of the reason behind this situation might be the lack of enough intellectual immunity to stand against this perverse thought. Thus, these people adopted intellectual idolism and became imprisoned by a stagnant mentality that deters development, progress and dialogue. They are passing through darkness that destroyed them and their communities. In light of this, the study aims to measure the level of intellectual immunity and idol thought for the students at the University of Anbar. It attempts to answer the following question; Is there any relationship between intellectual immunity and idol thought? To address this question, the study adopts the analytical descriptive approach which quantitatively and qualitatively describes this phenomenon via collecting data and classifying them for analysis and finding relations among the different variables of the phenomenon in order to explain it. The study sample consists of 210 female and male students at the College of Education for Humanities and the College of Education for Pure Sciences. Two instrument have been used to measure the intellectual immunity and the idol thought. In addition, validity and reliability tests have been carried out using suitable statistical tools. The findings of the study indicate a medium level of intellectual immunity and no idolism thought among the study sample, whereby the mean was less than the average. There are no statistically significant differences in gender or field of specialization in immunity and idol thought. The reasons behind this can be attributed to the homogeneity of the conditions surrounding all participants in the study. There has been a correlative reverse relationship between immunity and idolism, i.e., the higher the intellectual immunity, the lower the idol thought. This finding is reasonable since ideas in the minds of people represent the main dynamo and the motive of all their activities and behaviors. The more these ideas are sound and based on scientific, rational and logical basis, the more the people become developed, creative and ready to sacrifice.

 

Abstract The Effect of Social Media on Intellectual Extremity for University Students: A Comparative Study between University of Saida and University of Anbar

Aish Sabah; Omer Khalaf Al-Shujairi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 241-259

The means of social media have changed the path of communications because of modern technology, easy use of communicative sites and their abrupt spread which made the world a small village. These means become one of the essential factors which change orientations, behaviours and thoughts. The present paper aims at identifying the level of social media addiction and the intellectual extremity for students of Algeria and Iraq. Moreover, it reveals the effect of social media on intellectual extremity. The study has been performed on a sample which consists of (174) male/female student in both universities: University of Anbar in Iraq and University of Saida in Algeria. The sample of the study is chosen at randomly. To achieve the aims of the study, the descriptive approach has been used, depending on two criteria. These criteria represent the Social Media Addiction by safi Amani Mohammed (2017) and Intellectual Extremity by Ismael Rashad (2013). The data of the study have been treated statistically for social sciences by using T-Test for one sample; deviation and coefficient correlation of Person to estimate the validity and Alfa Krunpakh to estimate the stability. The study concludes that there is a high level of social media sites addiction where mathematical mean for the whole sample is 57.2701. It is bigger than theoretical mean 54 with statistical value 0.01. The study also arrives at the fact that there is a high level of intellectual extremity for students of Iraq and Algeria where mathematical mean is 82.5747. It is bigger than theoretical mean 78 with statistical value 0.01. The study proves that communicative sites affect intellectual extremity where interpretative power for the model (0.541) =R2. It is a high interpretative power which means that social media sites addiction interprets 53% of dependent variable (intellectual extremity). The results of the study are discussed according to theoretical framework, previous studies and the characteristics of the sample of the study. The researchers recommend that there is an urgent need to encourage youths to use social media sites in sound and secured way. The focus should be on educational aspects of these sites.
 

 

The Role of Mosques in the Moderation of Socially Directed Religious discourse

Abed Mohammad Gaidan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 260-279

The role of the mosque is reflected in the interest of religion in society and in human beings and its guidance in peace, war, curricula and ethics, as well as its role in influencing ideas because it employs religion to unite the ranks of society and debate with them over their public affairs in such a way as to achieve the security of society. Guidance and consultation can be presented to people via mosques to encourage the individual to feel the issues of the nation and to continue interaction and integration among members of social classes in order to bring success in the political process in society.The researcher is aware of the failure of the mosques to contain the crisis in Anbar. The guideline came out of place and was not directed to resolve the crisis, but rather, which closed most mosques on Friday to force worshipers to pray in the squares.Mosques and mosques play a central and pivotal role in the life of Iraq during the occupation and beyond. Friday sermons in Sunni mosques and Shiites were platforms for political positions. The decision-makers listen carefully to them, observe their symbols and strive not to anger them after discovering that they have influence. On Iraqi society, far greater than the influence of any other politician.Mosques are one of the most important educational institutions necessary for educating young people, modifying their behavior, correcting their ideas, consolidating their beliefs, preventing them from intellectual invasion, and raising their morale. In order to contribute to the guidance of the community, mosques should be developed in accordance with contemporary issues. The issue of intellectual security and peaceful coexistence and rejection of sectarianism, and discuss the problems of society and provide legitimate solutions to them, by explaining the verses of the Koran and the Prophet's Hadith, which urges the achievement of security and peace and stability, and the mosque has an effective role in collecting Ml members of the community and spread love and intimacy and peace among its members, and to renounce violence and division and infighting and rivalry between them, so as to achieve the concept of intellectual security and rejects extremism in all its meanings aside and raise the morale of the members of the community.It is also known that linking young people to their affairs and their scholars through sermons, lessons and words in mosques and the constant urge to reunite and not fall into the division that hates Allah and His Messenger.

 

Is it Enough for Displaced People to Rely on Religious Strategies to Cope? Psychological Perspective

Fuaad Mohammed Freh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 280-293

More than one decade of terrorist actions have led to widespread of human suffering and population displacements inside and outside of Iraq. Recent studies of the general population have found that internally displaced people (IDPs) had high levels of mental health problems, including anxiety (45-55%), major depression (30-40%), posttraumatic stress symptoms (53-60%), and lack of feeling secure in communicating with others (78.2%), but people tend to use strategies to cope with their problems such as religious strategies. However, to the researcher best knowledge no study has been conducted to investigate the psychological consequences and mental health effects following displacements among Iraqi people, and the extent that religious strategies could mediate the psychological stressors. This study aimed to address this gap in literature by investigating the relationship between religious strategies and some psychological disorders such as symptoms of PTSD, patterns of insecure attachment and behavioral and emotional problems. The sample consisted of 106 adults aged beyween 18-32 years. They were recruited randomly from three camps (1 in Baghdad and 2 in Anbar. Ninety-seven persons with no displacement experience constituted the control. In regard to their post-displacements trauma and behavioral problems, people were assessed using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Attachment Style Classification Questionnaire (ASCQ-15), and spiritual/religious coping (SRC). The results showed that people were found to experience negative alterations in cognitions and mood, avoidance and intrusive thought. PCL-5 revealed that 51.9, 38.7, and 10.9% had full, partial and no-PTSD respectively. The severity and total number of traumatic events independently predicted total BCL, SDQ, and ASCQ scores. However, the SRC was medaiting only the SDQ. Results also showed that there were significant differences between the exposed group and the control on all YCPC, BCL, SDQ, ASCQ, and SRC scales. The clinical and research implications of these conclusions are discussed.

 

Efficacy of a program Based on Education Needs for Citizenship in the development of Middle Path and Moderation Values in the Secondary School Students

Yasir khalef Rasheed Al-Shujairy; Hayder Abdulkareem Mohsin Al-Zuhairy

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 294-315

The formation of the students on the principles of community service, including: citizenship, moderation, moderation, tolerance, civic behavior that ensures respect for others in diversity and love of the homeland, and others have become a necessity of education, because it is a fundamental element in building the future, and an important pillar of modern societies It is therefore necessary to spread this culture in all social and educational institutions, especially schools, which is one of the first educational institutions that contribute with the family in building, educating and educating them. Both advanced and developing societies have been very interested in raising citizenship as one of the major ways to meet the challenges of the 21st century. It is also one of the tools that enhance the individual's belonging to his country, society, values and system. It works to enhance the political and social participation of individuals and solve many of the problems that the society suffers. Therefore, the current research problem came to answer the following question: What is the efficacy of a program based on the needs of education for citizenship and its effectiveness in the development of the values of moderation and middle path among students in the secondary stage.2.Research ObjectiveThe goal of the research is to build a program based on the needs of education for citizenship and to recognize its effectiveness in the development of the values of middle path and moderation among students in the preparatory stage.3.Research MethodologyThe researchers followed the experimental research method. A random sample of 66 students from the fourth grade was randomly assigned to two groups (experimental and control) ie 33 students in each group after the two researchers were statistically rewarded. On the needs of education for citizenship was presented to a group of arbitrators specialized in educational and psychological sciences and Islamic sciences; then applied to the students of the experimental group during (12) sessions, (3) sessions per week.The researchers prepared a measure of the values of middle path and moderation of (30) paragraphs with three alternatives (I strongly agree, I agree to a medium degree, I disagree), the validity, validity and validity of the application has been verified. 4 .Research findingsThe results showed a statistically significant difference between the average scores of the two groups in favor of the control group. There is also a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of the two applications (tribal and post) on the scale for the experimental group.5.ConclusionRecommendation The researchers recommended several things, including:1. Holding training courses for middle school teachers and their teachers in different specialties on how to include the values of middle path and moderation in their teaching and development in order to meet the deviant ideology and extremism in accordance with the requirements of the modern era.2. Holding a conference or seminar on (values of moderation and moderation) and how to root it with students.3. Include concepts (citizenship, values of middle path and moderation) in the curriculum,

 

Religious Orientation and its Relationship with Intolerance Trends in Secondsry School Students after Displacement

Safi Umal Salah

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 316-335

Religious orientation is a psychological and social phenomenon which continued with man since the first creation. The various religious orientations have been accompanied with several violations and confusions. Several bodies have attempted to exploite religion for personal interest. In addition, religion is sometimes associated with extremisits trends and intolerance and hostility with the others. On this basis, the study aims to explore the level of religious orientation (internal and external) in secondary school students after displacement resulting from terrorism actions. In addition, it aims to examine their intolerance trends and the relationship between religious orientation and intolerance as well as the significance of differences pertaining to gender (male/female) in this regard. The study sample consisted of 248 students (140 males and 108 females) coming from secondary schools in Ramadi city for the academic year 2016-2017. This sample has undergone to two measurements; one for religious orientation (Al-Buhairi, et al, 1988) and the other for intolerance trends proposed by Al-Ssunmadaey (2016), after verifying their psychometric features. After using suitable statistical tools, results have shown that the level of the general religious orientation for the sample was upper intermediate. Male stuents were more religiously inclined than female students (external religious orientation). Moreover, there were intolerance ternds in members of the sample. There were no statistically significant differences between the two sex groups. In addition, intolerance trends can be arranged in the following order; tribal prejudice, sectarian prejeudice, religious fanaticism, social prejudice and national prejudice. The recommendations of the study emphasize the active role of social organizations such as universities in fostering foundations of sound religious orientation which rejects fanaticism and the attempts to rehabilitate extremists to achieve social peace

 

The Role of School Psychological Guidence in Reinforcing the Culture of Moderation Discourse for Secondary School Students

Hussein Hussein Zaydan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 336-353

Nowadays, the extravagant or extremist discourse becomes a popular phenomena in societies. This phenomena helps to create negative and errant principles and thoughts in society especially for the youths. Among them are stdents of schools. Dangerously, it becomes a common culture of behaviour among individuals. The audio visual means of various communicative apparatus contribute to develop these alien and negative cultures in society. Therefore; educational guidance is very important in modificating behavioural, idealogical and cognitive structures via its scientific styles and several mythodology. Among these methodologies are developmental, protective and therapeutic methodology. The importance of educational guidance also lies in its helpful role in distinguishing between right and wrong. Moreover, it helps in learning various positive cultures which include the culture of moderation discourse. This discourse has an important role in building up the individual and society as well. The paper deals with an important sample of society which is the students in secondary schools. This stage of development is very important if you know that it represents an adolescent stage which needs a due attention and psychological and educational guidance that meet their needs and intentions. The present study aims at understanding the extremist discourse which spreads extensively in society. The culture of misunderstanding becomes a common fact because of its ambiguity of intentions and messages. So, the study emerges to identify the role of psychological guidance in reinforcing the culture of moderation discourse for students. The researcher determines the descriptive approach in his analysis of the present paper. The data are gathered through accumulating questionare which includes paragraphs of the research. These paragraphs have been applied on the sample of the study which is chosen from male/female students of secondary schools. The data has been treated and discussed stastistically via (SPSS). The results of the study show that school psychological guidance has vital and positive role in reinforcing the culture of moderation discourse. The study also shows that there is a distinction with statistical value in reinforcing the guidance for the culture of moderation discourse for males compared to females. In conclusion and through achieved results, the researcher recommends that psychological guidance should be taken into consideration in reinforcing the culture of behavioural and ideological moderation. It creates a social and moderate environment for developing moderate cultures for individuals in society. The researcher notes that there is a weakness in understanding the societal identity, social affliation for the youths and their effect by ideological discourse. This situation lets the researcher to suggest a study entitled “The Crisis of Identity and its Relationship with Ideological Moderation” to confront this orientation.

 

Academic Environment & its Role in Facing the Challenges of Globalization

Wafaa Khudair

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2018, Volume 2018, Issue 5, Pages 354-367

The university as an educational institution must bear the greatest burden in facing the contemporary global challenges and its effects, especially cultural globalization, based on its role as educational institutions that rely on science, planning, scientific analysis and national and national performance according to present and future vision aiming at rooting our national culture in the present and future generations, To be useful members in the building of their nation, which is the universities responsible for the cultural and civilizational continuity of the Arab society, and is characterized by the identification of culture and provide these generations with values and behaviors. As the university environment plays an important role in rooting the human behavior of the student personality and developing the emotional, moral and moral aspects, any lecture given by the teacher must include all three basic aspects: skills, knowledge, The study aimed to identify the educational role of the university environment to meet the challenges of globalization, to determine the extent of the university environment in its educational role, and also to identify ways of activating the educational role of the university environment to meet the challenges of globalization. The importance of this study is in determining the most important roles played by the university environment. (The role of the educational environment of the university), as well as the formulation of (32) paragraphs distributed on the three roles of the following: (constructive role, preventive role, and therapeutic role). The questionnaire was applied after verifying the truthfulness and persistence of a sample of (250) male and female students for the academic year 2017/2018 after being selected randomly from a number of students at the University of Tikrit. The study found that the university environment plays a role in facing the challenges of globalization in a medium way from the point of view of the sample. The mathematical averages for the three main roles of the media (according to a three-response scale) were: (2.010 degrees for the structural role and 2.004 degrees) For the preventive role, and (1.972) for the therapeutic role, and the general arithmetic average of these three roles (1.993) degree. In light of the results of the research, a number of recommendations and proposals were presented, including: - The necessity of conducting a study on the university environment, with all its elements, and its educational and moral role from the point of view of the professors. And. The need to increase the awareness and guidance role of the various institutions and institutions of university work and the developments resulting from contemporary global changes.