Volume 2022, Issue 1 (Issue 1, Vol. 1, 2022), Winter 2022, Page 1-447


Examples of submerged Sufi shrines in Baghdad (an archaeological study)

Saadi Ibrahim Al. Darraji

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 1-19

This paper is concerned with studying examples of submerged shrines in Baghdad, and they are many, from which we chose three: the tomb of Sheikh Muhammad al-Azhari, the tomb of Qilij Arslan, and the tomb of Ibrahim al-Fadl.
Despite the ancient and historical importance of these three tombs, they were neglected and were not previously documented in an archaeological scientific study. That is why the researcher sought to document these three mausoleums with a descriptive and analytical study that relied on field visits, and to develop a plan for each mausoleum showing its exact shape and measurements, and to reinforce that with photographs. As well as studying the tombs and writings that were found on the graves of the owners of the tombs under study and emptying the decorations and writings executed in the form of artistic paintings, in the hope of protecting them from demolition and change carried out by some government institutions.
The study has reached results that the researcher hopes will be useful in the field of academic studies specialized in late Islamic antiquities, as they document important landmarks in Baghdad; It contributes to revealing important aspects of religious architecture to make it a link in the chain of shrines recorded in the world of architecture.

AI-Hasan Bin AIi AI-Atroosh and his role in the revivaI of AI- AIawia emirate in Tabaristan ( 301 – 316 / 913- 928)

Fawaz Jazza'a; Hamad Mohammed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 20-53

The Zaidi Emirate in Tabaristan has a distinct importance, because it is the first political entity that the Alawites were able to establish in the Islamic Mashreq, after a long period of Islam’s entry into Iran. Therefore, I dealt with the life of Hassan al-Atrush, who was one of the most important Alawite personalities who had the most prominent role in the Zaidi emirate. At all levels, as the revival of the Zaydi emirate (Tabariah) in the year 301 / 913 AD was able to fall in the year (316 AH / 928 AD) after the killing of the young da’i, al-Hasan bin al-Qasim, his brother-in-law. The great in the history of Shiites in Iran in particular and in the history of the Islamic East in general.

Pages from the history of the Sassanid state Through the manuscript (Al.Faraaid Al.Muntaqaa min Tarikh Sahib Hama by Badr al-Din bin Habib al-Shami al-Halabi)

Sarab M . Saleh; Iftikhar .Al-Akidi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 53-73

This research explores the kings of the Sassanid state in the history of the ancient Persians, which was abundant with many human and civilizational gatherings that were inhabited at the time or that were displaced from Central Asia, and in turn contributed to the establishment of many states and cities, and these human gatherings helped in creating civilized coexistence that left dimensions not It can be dispensed with in terms of thought and culture, as well as its great ability to influence man, among them the ruling small states of the Persian kings, which each of them was able to establish control over large parts of Persia and fight all those competing for it to continue and control, as it reached most of the Persian small states Of the force to become a strong contender in front of the Byzantine Empire. As well as the role of each state of influencing and influencing civilizations, traditions and religions, as most of the Persian civilizations were a mixture of other civilizations by virtue of the neighborhood

The position of the Almohad sources from Prince Yusuf bin Tashfin

Abdulsamad J.M; Mudhir A.A

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 74-93

The Almoravid state was distinguished by the presence of extraordinary leaders who took upon themselves to spread the religion and protect the Islamic territories, and despite all the efforts they made to support the religion, they did not escape from the stabbing or libel of the historians of the Almohad state. Tashfin 453-500 AH / 1061-1106AD, who was described as the greedy ruler and the coveted in Andalusia, although his intervention was to protect the Muslims of Andalusia from what befell them at the hands of the Christians and the failure of the rulers of the sects in defending the Muslims.

The Historical Development of Transcribing the Noble Qur’an in the Prophet’s and Calipha’s Eras

Hudhaifah K. Shahooth; Iman M. Al-Obaidi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 94-124

This research deals with ((The Historical Development of Transcribing the Noble Qur’an in The Prophet’s and Rashidun Eras)). God Almighty preserved the Noble Qur’an through His Messenger (Peace be upon him) who received it well and memorized it perfectly. He did his best for this job and apprised the best message to the others. The transcription of the Noble Qur’an is one of the most significant events in the Arab Islamic state. The Prophet’s companions (May Allah be pleased with them) had an important role in the process of transcribing, especially the compilation of the Noble Qur’an in the time of Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq ((May Allah be pleased with him)) and the transcribing of the Qur’ans during the era of Othman bin A’fan ((May Allah be pleased with him))  the Calipha who ordered for the transmission of the Qur’an’s transcriptions  to be distributed to the regions. However, that gradual progression in preserving the Book of God Almighty took place under the supervision of an elite who are the best of human beings after the prophets. Glory be to the One who chose them in the most difficult circumstances to achieve the miracle of preserving the Book of God Almighty.

Urban landmarks in Cairo in the Fatimid era

Zainab Sh. Jasem; Abduljabbar M. Shrems

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 125-141

The idea of research is summarized about the nature of luxury in the field of civilization, which is summarized in the study of the cultural landmarks that were established by the Fatimid Caliphs in Egypt, such as cities, palaces, mosques and landscapes, which witnessed a great development in ways of construction, size and decorations. The research showed that the luxury in these facilities cost the Fatimid state huge sums of money, which affected its future.

Plague in the era of the Mongol invasion of the Islamic East 616- 658 AH/ 1218 -1260 AD

Hiyam odah Muhammad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 142-164

Abstract
The research deals with the study of the plague in the era of the Mongol invasion of the Islamic Mashreq and the accompanying incidents that contributed as direct or indirect causes to the emergence and spread of the plague, which is something that must be studied and linked to the current reality experienced by the whole world due to the spread of the Corona virus (coved 19), I will address in the research to
The linguistic meaning of the terms plague and epidemic and the interpretations of them in the Arabic language.
A review of the measures that were known in the past to protect against plague, starting from the era of the Messenger (may God bless him and his family and grant them peace) with prophetic hadiths mentioned in this regard. and then compare them with the measures taken in the time period under study. Although there are articles in this aspect, but we will address To the period witnessed by the Islamic world in the era of the Mongol advance towards the Islamic East.
Knowing the causes and types of plagues mentioned in Islamic history.
In this research, we will explain the effect of the Mongol tide towards the countries of the Islamic Mashreq, up to Baghdad, from the impact of the spread of epidemics as a result of the extermination operations that left millions dead inside and outside the cities. Study subject.

Important Nuggets about Ibn Fadlan's journey

Luma Faik Ahmed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 165-199

In this study, Ibn Fadlan carried the message of the Caliph al-Muqtadir in Allah and his minister Hamed bin Abbas to the king of Salkala. He instructed Ibn fadlan to explain to the king the principles of the Islamic religion. He also
Provided Ibn fadlan with an appropriate amount of money to set up a mosque and a fortress to protect them from attacks by the khazars . On the request of the king of the Skeleton of the Caliphate Muqtadir in God .
It took Ibn fadlan,s journey for a period that did not reveal the son of fadlan for its duration, and the delegation sent the message to the king of Salkalp but we found that the letter did not succeed in embracing the king of Salkalp of Islam, the mosque was not built and the fortress because one person stole the money sent by the Caliph Muqtar His response was violent and he did not accept any excuse from Ibn Fadlan .
The journey of Ibn fadlan painted a clear picture of vast areas, of which no one knew . The research dealt with some of the dirhams used, but Ibn Fadlan did not disclose their value, so we were forced to extract the value of some of these dirhams and link them to what is located at the headquarters of the Abbasid Caliphate through some operations the simple arithmetic, where the research highlighted the economic and financial aspects only and other wise is outside the scope of this research .

The impact of (Imam Malik's Muwatta) on the intellectual movement in Andalusia until the end of the fourth century AH

Anaam Hameed Sharmoot

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 200-217

Since its emergence, the Maliki school of jurisprudence has been widely spread in Andalusia, and after a short period it became the official doctrine of the state and Al-Muwatta became the first book in the circles of the intellectual movement in Andalusia unchallenged.
The Muwatta had a prominent and influential role on the intellectual and scientific life after it was adopted by the Arab Islamic state in Andalusia and since the beginning of the era of the emirate. Intellectual and its data until the end of the fourth century AH, I divided my research into three sections:
The first: sheds light on the life of Imam Malik bin Anas, the author of the book. The second topic: deals with the book of Al-Muwatta and how it was spread. The third topic deals with the impact of Al-Muwatta’ on intellectual life in Andalusia. However, the most prominent of them is the book “Arranging Perceptions and Approaching the Paths to Know the Media of Malik’s School of Thought” by Judge Iyadh bin Musa Al-Sabti (T.: 544 AH/1149 AD). The research relied on it a lot. The importance of this book lies in the fact that its author is one of the most prominent figures of the Imam Malik bin Anas school of jurisprudence. The books on which the research relied is also the book ((Al-Dibaj Al-Madhhib)) by Ibn Farhoun

The City of Raqqada, and its urban, inteIIectuaI and MiIitary impact during the era of the AghIabids

Abdulrahman Sh. Mahmoud

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 218-236

The IsIamic State State Witnessed the emergence of many Cities, incIuding the city of Raqqada,   specificaIIy during the reign of Prince Ibrahim bin Ahmed bin AI – AghIab, in the year 261  AH/874AD, as the difficuIt intemaI confIicts had an effective impact on the transition to this placeIt was distinguished by its moderate cIimate, fertiIe soiI, and its Iocation on the sea, as weII as the Iarge number of the majority have succeeded in their ages untiI it became a beacon of knowIedge and knowIedge and a miIitary center from which miIitary operations were Iaunched to confront intermaI and externaI dangers . And this city remained prosperous throughout the years of the ruIe of the AghIabids untiI Ubaid AIIah AI – Shiite was abIe to enter it to end the ruIe of the AghIabids and start a new era.

Najeh Al-Rawi and his role in the Scientific Academy 1996-2006

Eyad Kh. Ahmed; Fahmi A. Farhan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 237-248

The political aspects in the contemporary history of Iraq are the most aspects that academic and non-academic researchers dealt with in their studies, unlike the cultural, social and economic aspects, and the personalities of the educated elite, which are aspects that were not subjected to research and study except by a few researchers, and even researchers who were exposed To study the biographies and roles of personalities, their studies were limited to political figures, kings, heads of states, prime ministers, and ministers, while they neglected the study of personalities who contributed to the development of Iraq through their assumption of various positions in the state.

The interest of the United States of America in aspects of cultural activity in Egypt 1956-1970

Mahmoud H. Amer; Jamal F. Hamad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 249-267

The United States of America considered it necessary to consolidate its influence in Egypt since the first decade of the twentieth century, and behind this trend was far-reaching goals, the most important of which is the establishment of cultural and educational institutions to spread American culture in the Egyptian governorates, as it is a fertile environment for cultural activities. In Egypt, which played a major role in Egypt, which caused controversy among the Egyptian cultural circles, some of them considered it to be within the framework of the cultural exchange between the two countries, and some considered it a police duty, which forced President Gamal Abdel Nasser to personal intervention to resolve that controversy, and it became one of the educational cultural institutions The mission in Egypt to this day. In addition to these cultural and educational institutions, the Ford and Franklin institutions were active, as well as the activity of the press and art in Egypt for the duration of the study. Those are the axes of the tagged research (the interest of the United States of America in aspects of cultural activity in Egypt 1956-1970).

Hadi Numan Al-Hiti (press and career services)

Ahmed Jasem; Ahmed Rashid Juraithi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 268-283

The dear province of Anbar gave birth to a large number of personalities who had a reputation in building the Iraqi state since its establishment in 1921 until the present day. The fields, and among those personalities that the people of Anbar have the right to be proud of because of the scientific legacy they left us in addition to their academic, journalistic and cultural role. Hadi Numan Al-Hiti and his press and career services are among the independent personalities who gained the fame, knowledge and knowledge that are based on their knowledge and standing without assistance From a party, party, or coup movement.

Jordanian foreign relations with the neighboring Arab countries under the governments of Zaid Al-Rifai

Asaad A. Suleiman; Khudair S. Makhoul

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 284-298

The study discussed the role of Zaid Al-Rifai in Jordanian foreign policy and the relationship with the neighboring Arab countries during his tenure as prime minister in Jordan during the period (1973-1976) and (1985-1989). The study aimed to show the position of Jordanian Prime Minister Zaid Al-Rifai as a Jordanian Arab political figure and his role in The Jordanian relations with the Arab neighboring countries, the relationship with Syria, Iraq and Saudi Arabia as a model and its role in many issues and crises, and its contribution to finding solutions to them through bilateral and collective dialogue and through diplomatic work. At a time when the role of Zaid Al-Rifai in many Arab issues and the joint Arab work and his continuous urging appeared clearly To establish good relations between Jordan and the Arab countries, with the aim of briefing With these goals and developments, a structure was developed for the study that was distributed in the form of three paragraphs. The first was the position of Zaid Al-Rifai on the Jordanian-Syrian relations, the second the position on the development of Jordanian-Iraqi relations, and the third the Jordanian-Saudi relations.

The Role of Al-Mazari in East Africa 1870 - 1896

Nibrass Kh. Jadaan; Musleh M. Abed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 299-325

The research aims to highlight the role played by the Al-Mazari in East Africa, and to clarify the relationship between them and the rulers of Al-Busaid, especially in the period 1870-1896 AD, which was represented by the Al-Busaid rulers standing against the Al-Mazari in East Africa. As a result of this, the Mazari made several revolts against the rulers of Al-Busaid in order to gain independence and to form a rule of their own. Thus, Mubarak bin Rashid Al Mazrouei, the leader of the largest branch AL-Mazari, revolted against them and against the British authority that had established a company in East Africa. However, with British and German cooperation they were eliminated and surrendered in 1896 AD. The research dealt with four basic investigations ,the first topic focused on the relationship of Mazari’s with Sultan Barghash bin Sa'ad 1870-1885, and the second topic dealt with the British-German conflict over East Africa and the establishment of the British East Africa Company from 1886-1888 AD, while the third topic dealt with Sultan Khalifa and his relationship with Mubarak bin Rashid Al Mazrouei 1888-1890 AD. . As for the fourth and final topic, it includes the revolution of Mubarak bin Rashid Al Mazrouei against Britain, which eliminated their influence permanently in 1896 AD.

Ministers of Health in Iraq 1952-1958

Ekhlas Laftah Hurayyiz

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 326-353

This research deals with the biography of the health ministers in Iraq (1952-1958) and their achievements in the health aspect, that is, from the creation of the Ministry of Health for the second time under Law No. (28) of 1952 until the end of the royal era. The position of Minister of Health, after its creation, was assigned to some prominent personalities in the royal era, and some of them were able to perform their role efficiently and sincerely, and they were punished for this position during the search period (14) ministers, they are: Abdul Rahman Jawdat once, Abdul Majeed Al-Qassab twice, Muhammad Hassan Salman Three times, Abd al-Amir Allawi, five times, Abd al-Hadi al-Jalabi once, Sabih al-Wahbi once, and Mahmoud Baban once, and the discussion dealt with the practical activities of health ministers and their achievements in the field of health in Iraq
In the research, he explained the reasons for the delay in the achievements of the Ministry of Health during the research period, which belongs to two matters. The first is the choice of the person who is not suitable for the Ministry of Health, and the change of ministries and their short duration due to the political situation.

The struggle of Syrian women during the French Mandate

Ranya H. Ali; Yousif S. Farhan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 354-370

The research deals with the role of Syrian women during the French Mandate. Syrian women did not neglect the revolutions and associations, but tried and made all efforts to get rid of the French Mandate. The Syrian woman stood with the man and supported him in his wars against the French colonialist.  In addition to the associations that it founded until independence was achieved in 1946, many politicians supported the participation of women in political and social life, as Syrian women had a great role, whether during the Ottoman era, the Faisal era, or during the mandate, as they actively participated with  Her brother, the man, was in the fight against French colonialism and demanded freedom and independence like men. She also participated socially through forums and associations in the fight against colonialism or through education, which she considered a weapon in the face of the French enemy until Syria gained its independence in 1946, in which Syrian women had a role in that.

Cultural Relations between Iraq and Bulgaria 1968-1979

Yousef K. Sabbar; Jabran I. Rafeeq

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 371-409

In our research we deal with the study of cultural relations between the Republic of Iraq and the Bulgarian Republic for the period between 1968-1979, and the relations between the two countries have witnessed important developments since the revolution of July 14, 1958, when the doors of relations between Iraq and the socialist camp were opened, including Bulgaria.
 Therefore, the research sought to uncover the nature of these relations in a way that serves the interests of the two countries present and in the future. Studies have relied on the historical and analytical method within a view based on the Orientalism of the future, and the research reached a number of results, perhaps the most prominent of which is the obtaining of many Iraqi students obtaining degrees in postgraduate studies and the volume of cultural exchange and sports and youth cooperation Between the two countries

Consequences of U.S Withdrawal from Iran Nuclear deal on Iraq: (A study to assess Political and Security Aspects)

Jabbar Hassan Saeed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 410-424

The aim of this research is to make an overall assessment of American Withdrawal from Iranian Nuclear Program and its impacting on  political and security aspects in Iraq; however this study took a year 2013, as launching point due to this year Iran  retains of its a nuclear program. Besides Iran has also announced that it is working on a new Nuclear Power reactor.                          
The findings of this research shows that the continuing of Iran's government to reject any intention regarding the developing of nuclear bombs. But stepping away from its obligations rather Iran seeks to increasing stockpiles of enriched uranium that may will bring the country nearer to possess the ability to do so.The findings of this research also explore that Iran's possession of nuclear weapons, that will create instability in the Arab Gulf region in particular Saudi Arabia, Emerita and other countries

Ashkelon in the second and first millennium BC

Tameem A. Jubair; Shaiban Th. Mustafa

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 1, Pages 425-447

Ashkelon is one of the oldest Palestinian coastal cities, based on the archaeological excavations and excavations conducted in the city, and the name Ashkelon appeared in the nineteenth century BC, and took multiple names during historical eras, and it occupies an important geographical, historical and commercial location. Because it is a link between the Levant and Egypt.
The site of Ashkelon was unusual as it was directly on the water and the edge of the land, and it was the only way to travel and trade through Palestine in all cases, and Ashkelon was considered one of the cities with a moderate climate in winter and summer, and this is confirmed by geographical studies, and also Ashkelon is one of the most common sites Coastal areas are fertile in Palestine, where fruits and grains are grown and all that the community requires of sustenance. In general, the city of Ashkelon and its villages have an important location on all levels, and this is what has been proven by the historical records about this city