Volume 2022, Issue 2 - Issue Serial Number 1 (Issue 2, Vol. 1, 2022), Spring 2022, Page 1-551

The Follower (Al-tabi'y) Ubaydu-ALLah Bin Abi Bakrah Historical Study

Ali A. Al-Zoaba'y; Mudhir A.A

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1-25

The research studies the personal life of the follower Ubaydu-Allah bin Abi Bakrah and his political, administrative, and scientific impact in the Arab Islamic state, as he belonged to a family that has its merits and predecessors in Islam. His father was one of the Prophet's (Peace and Blessing Be upon him) freed slaves. Abi Bakrah was born and brought up in Al-Rashidi era, and acquired science and learning in the best centuries, the first century AH. His family occupied a close position to the governors and caliphs. Abi Bakrah had many virtues, characterized by honesty and trustworthiness, and won the confidence of the princes and caliphs of his contemporary period. He was characterized by good qualities and virtuous qualities that made him the object of respect and appreciation of everyone.                                                            
        He had important effects in the Arab Islamic state in the Umayyad period. He had political, administrative and scientific implications, in addition to his generosity, free giving, which is a commendable effect in this world and the hereafter. All these effects qualified him to be among those who were immortalized in history. 

The city of aydhij, a study in its political and cultural conditions

Muhammad Hassan Suhail Al-Dulaimi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 26-50

Abstract :  aydhij, one of the seven cities of Al-Ahwaz that was conquered in a year17h at the hands of the Muslim Arabs under the leadership of Al-Numan bin Muqrin Al-Muzni, had an important role in the events of Islamic history in the medieval era, especially in the Abbasid era, in the military and political events. Its participation in the sixth century AH became the political capital of the independent Greater Lorestan Emirate It continued until the first quarter of the ninth century AH, during which the city witnessed a wide urban movement and development in the intellectual and educational field, as well as its economic prosperity due to three factors (capital, markets, industries.

The approach of Abu Bakr al-Maliki in his book Riyadh al-Nufus

Muthan W. Jarad; Lateef K. Mohammed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 51-80

Abu Bakr al-Maliki is considered one of the most prominent figures of Arab and Islamic history because he left us with books that drew the attention of historians and researchers, ancient and modern. A study in this regard through his method in his book, Riyadh Al-Nofous, and the importance of his book comes from the political, economic, social, cultural and literary information it included, as well as the historical material for its reliance in authorship on historical sources. It is historical, and it is considered a link between the sciences of history, translations and biographies. Therefore, this study came under the title (The Approach of Abu Bakr Al-Maliki in Riyadh Al-Nonfood..

Imam Muhammad bin Al-Hussein bin Abdullah Al-Baghdadi Al-Ajri (d. 360 AH) And his approach in his book “Akhlaq al-Ulama

Alaa Nafeh Jassim

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 81-101

Ethics are among the affirmations of faith in Islam, and therefore it is not possible to separate them. A bad character cannot be a believer because they contradict each other in principle. The believer must be of great morals, imitating the teachings of God and His Noble Messenger, faith here in God and his lordship, and his care of creation in managing their affairs and treating one another well.
And the scholars in terms of the necessity of having morals in terms of importance after the greatest Messenger, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him. Especially adherence to morals and ethics by seeking and spreading knowledge.
The research included identifying the biography of Al-Ujri, the status of ethics in Islam, as well as identifying the ethics of some Muslim philosophers, defining the importance of the book, and then addressing Al-Ujri's approach and style

Occupation and Profession in the Book ((GhayaT Al-Nahiya fi Tabaqat Al-Reader)) by Ibn Al-Jazari Died 833 A.H

Fatima Zabar Anazan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 102-122

He followed an approach based on the presentation and analysis of his money related to his translator’s job and profession. Or abbreviated, and make it directly related to the events that were intertwined in the translation and presented in an administrative, scientific or literal manner and other conditions in which the Arab and Islamic countries were.

the attitude of people Andalusia on the spread of the Hanafi doctrine ( a historical study)

Anees Mohammed Jasim AL-Mashhadani

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 123-172

I have dealt with in this research a study (the attitude of people Andalusia on the spread of the Hanafi doctrine - a historical study), which is considered one of the most important topics that solves some Islamic doctrines problems such as ; its emergence, and the reasons for their spread in some Islamic cities while it is declining in other cities.
The study of this topic is different from previous studies, which dealt with Islamic doctrines of thought in the land of Andalusia such as a jurisprudential study, the definition of its origins, its approach, and its jurisprudential opinions.
The Hanafi doctrine is considered one of the first Islamic doctrines, and the most widespread in the Islamic countries like of the other cities, which opened their doors to this doctrine until it is spread and settled in it, and became the controlling  to  all aspects of life in these cities.
Although the country of Andalusia was at the beginning of its era, it was affected by the Islamic East in various aspects, but it did not open its doors to this doctrine.
I showed in this research the reasons for the non-proliferation of the Hanafi doctrine of thought in the country of Andalusia, which were political, scientific, social and geographical reasons.

The role of Muslim scholars in psychiatry

Zainab Kamel Kareem

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 173-201

The aim of the research is to shed light on the efforts of Muslim scholars in psychiatric knowledge and its evolution in the Arab and Islamic civilization and to show these scholars impact on the development of this type of medicine. Some cities, especially Baghdad, were known as a center for medical education and the establishment of rules for organizing the practice of medicine through transportation, translation and authorship, so that it was the first hospital  He was held for psychotherapy in Baghdad, as his statement will come in the research
 Among the core focuses of the research is to demonstrate the efforts of two famous scholars, Abi Zayd Al-Balkhi in his book “Mashal al-Ibdan wa al-Anfs” and Ibn Sina in his book “The Law of Medicine”.
 Rather, the focus was on these two scholars because of their prominent impact in the field of preventive psychiatry, mental health preservation, and clinical psychiatry in treating and diagnosing mental illnesses, knowing their causes, and giving treatment, prescriptions, and methods of recovery from these diseases

The role of Banu Abd al – Ashhal in the era of Caliph Abu Baker al-Siddiq (peace be upon him) ( 11AH – 13 AH / 632AD - 634 AD)

Marwa Hassan Ali Al- Qaisy; Siham J. Hammadi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 202-221

This research deals with the study of Banu Abd al-Ashhal, one of the most important and largest clans of the Aws al-Ansari tribe, and their role during the era of Caliph Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (may God be pleased with him). It may include their participation in the Islamic army to fight the Romans in the first military launch after the death of the Prophet (peace and blessings of God be upon him).  The research also included a study of the heroic role presented by Banu Abd al-Ashhal in the wars of apostasy, the most dangerous movements that confronted the complete Islamic state, and also included a study of their great role in collecting and preserving the Holy Qur’an from loss.  The battles against the polytheists, including the battle of Ajnaden and the battle of Marj al-Safar.

altaabieiu aljalil eata' bin 'abi rabaah (114 AH / 732 AD) And His biography and scientific position

Sanaa Shindi Awwan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 222-238

The Islamic history is full of characters that have features greatly different from others, especially, the figures of first and second Hijri centuries that are nearer to the Islamic age. One of those is Atta' bin Abi Rabah; he was a diligent Imam, as well as he was an adorer, mystic, and jurist that made great scientific efforts from childhood till he increased knowledge. In addition, his intention is characterized with sincerity towards Allah in his asking, consequently. Allah gave him virtue regarding his religion and life, and made the imamate something obligatory for him at his time. Though he was a gladiator and had a black colored face, and he even didn't have money nor cultural position, Allah gave him a distinctive feature by raising his value for he is mystic, sincere and pure. Moreover, many jurists at his time had refered to his characteristics, traced and went after his strategy in being diligent when searching science , work, and virtues, and they always remembered him with good memories .

The orientalists' travelers are the future of a colonial project

Mohammed J. Abid; Qahtan A. Bakr

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 239-262

Oriental travelers played a prominent role in dealing with oriental studies from its early stages through the collection of Islamic manuscripts, their transmission to the West, their preservation and indexing. The orientalists roamed the Islamic lands and bought Islamic manuscripts at the lowest prices. The orientalist travelers also carried out personal authorship, the products of which were going to the colonial governments, with the intrusion and discrediting of their books and their export to the East. In addition, these travelers dealt with the political, economic and social conditions of Islamic countries. Some link between Orientalism and colonialism, as the first is considered an introduction to the second. The first was conducting a cultural survey of Arab and Muslim countries, and colonialism advances when the picture of the colonized countries is complete.

The policy of the British administration in southern Sudan 1922 - 1955

Hassan R. Khalaf; Abdulsatar J. Abid

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 263-284

Policy of British Administration in South Sudan 1922-1955 Profi Dr Hassan Rekan Chalaf- Al.Iraqia_Universily_College of Ar Prof.Dr. Abdul Satar Ji'eger Abd- Al-Anbar University.college of Edu British Administration in South Sudan followed apolicy aims to abrupt the preparing isolation, it took. advantage of the bad situation, which Southermems Suffered like the ignorance and deprivation of all life's aspects, the administration cooperated with foreign missionaries that Came South unity of Nationdl line with the Sons of the north in especially the British ones to implement that policy, that aimed to isolate South Sudan From its North. British, Administration Followed the path of British Government iself, it initiatel the encbsed societies that prevented the Comunications betwey. the northe South, thas missionaries played akey node in seperating instead of practicCing its true role which is the contribution of developing South Sudan and enhance servicos to its people, Hence, choosing the title Came to Shad light Administration on the nature of policy followed by the British in the Sauth and the start back to 1922 by issuing the Law of endlosed Areas to isolate South From north, it ended in 1955 were mutiny took pace in southern Sudan, and thatwas one of the results of that policy, reserchs chapters would clarify this clearly.

Harold Wilson and the conspiracy theory 1974-1986

Ahmed M. Abdullah; Hussein H. Abid

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 285-304

Witnessed Britain in the 1970s a Political rivalry for Power and the involvement of outside parties that had a major impact on the domestic problems between the Prime Minister and the Military Intelligence, Section 5 (MI5) especially since Harold Wilson had friendly relations with communist businessmen, which made the agency focus their interest on all elements nearby Wilson and interrogated to see the extent of his external engagement and this raised Wilson and make confirming the theory of conspiracy against him and his Government

The British withdrawal from the Persian Gulf 1968-1971 and its impact on British-Saudi relations

Ali A.Allawi; Mohammed Y Ahmad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 305-315

The British decision to withdraw from the Arabian Gulf after more than a century of presence in that vital region of the world did not come arbitrarily or abruptly. Among the countries most affected by the decision to withdraw because of the presence of key issues and concerns related to the British presence in the Gulf, so this withdrawal is double-edged for Saudi Arabia; On the other hand, he raised the concerns of Riyadh because of the dangers and regional and international threats that will emerge after the British withdrawal.

Secondary education in Dulaim District 1945-1958

Omer K Ibrahim; Ali Hussein Ali

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 316-337

Education received the attention of the monarchy in Iraq, especially after the developments that the country witnessed after World War II in all political, economic and cultural aspects. The interest is no longer limited to primary education only, but also includes secondary education, and Dulaim District is important in that area due to geographical factors in terms of The area and proximity to the capital, Baghdad, increased, so it witnessed an interest in secondary education during the period from 1945 to the end of the royal era in 1958.

The Economic Role of Jews of Algeria for the Period (1794-1830 A.D)

Rabiha Mohammed Khudair

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 338-361

Algeria represented a political and economic importance for the European countries in the sevententh and the eighteenthcenturies and they were an attraction factor for many categories of people to live in. So the Algerian society was a blend of many races and sects and Jews were one of these sects that lived in Algeria and they enjoyed their religious, social and economic rights. Jews could, gradually, expand their economic activity in an apparant manner, not on the domestic level only, but on the foreign level as well, that they controled the economy of Algeria and dominated its internal and external trade due to their strong ties with other states that enabled them from establishing transactions with European countries in general and with France in particular that led, later on, to the accumulation of France debts to Algeria and that was the reason that resulted in occupying Algeria by France in 1830 A.D.

Libya's efforts in decolonization and combating racial discrimination within the framework of the Organization of African Unity since 1969

Ibtihal A. Ismael; Ali N. Mohammed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 362-379

After the establishment of the Organization of the African Unity in 1963 , One of its main goals and principles was the decolonization of all forms and working to grant the African states their full independence. Also, this organization took care to support the African states that suffer from racial discrimination. Depending on these goals, Libya has played very important role in resisting the Colonialism in the African Continent through supporting the Colonized African states materially and morally. Libya also participated in supporting the  national movements to put an end to racial discrimination in some of its affiliated African states.

Early American infiltration into China 1791-1895

Fatin S. Aoda

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 380-401

Infiltration is one of the influential  methods that a state follows to achieve the goals of its personal policy to demonstrate its powers, maintain a balance with other countries, and secure the requirements of its national security as well as economic reasons that pave the way for obtaining certain benefits. This method was applied to US-Chinese relations during the research period.
    This research aims to shed light, albeit in a nutshell, on the early stages of the American infiltration into China. The study period extends from 1791 to 1895, as the first date represents the first official attempts of that infiltration, especially after the American Congress issued a decision to reduce customs duties by 10% on imported goods from China without exception. ; While the second historiography represented the role of American diplomacy in mediating the end of the Japanese-Chinese war in 1895.                               
    The research is divided into two main axes. The first deals with the beginnings of the American infiltration into China until 1842, while the second axis deals with strengthening the American influence in China (1842-1895) by concluding a number of treaties with the Chinese government, those treaties that consolidated American infiltration in East Asia. In general, and China in particular.

Syria and the civil Lebanese war 1975 – 1982


Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 402-431

Lebanon faced many internal and external difficulties which led to different shapes of internal conflict. It took the shape of religious sectarian conflict between Muslims and Christians as well as  Arab-Zionist conflict on one hand, And the palastanian existence in Lebanon on the other hand. These matters contributed in flaming the Lebanese civil war and led to the intrusion of many countries one of which was Syria which played a political and military important role. It tried to control over the Lebanese politics and prevent it from any external projects.This war lasted from 1975 to 1982

The political system of the city of Athens

Mohamed H. Abid; Ziyad O. Swidan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 432-449

The city of Athens has emerged in ancient Greece in all fields, the most important of which is the process of political organization, as this city witnessed several ruling political systems in addition to legal legislation that contributed to the development of Athenian politics as well as the social structure. Therefore, the city of Athens is one of the advanced Greek cities that have made great achievements, especially in Its political systems at the time, therefore, our study focused on the concepts of its political systems, in addition to the achievements and developments that it had achieved in all fields during that period, and consequently the city of Athens struck the most wonderful examples of developing political systems at all different stages.

Singularity of god baal

Marwan Najah Mahdi AL_Balam

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 450-474

In this study, I dealt with the first beginnings of the god Baal and how he was mythically ascended to the god El, and also detailed in the research the attempt of the god El to deter the god Baal in order not to be unique in the universe, so he wanted his son Yam and then died in order to reduce him
It also reviewed the position of his wife Anan, who was the second factor in fertility and how she stood with her husband in times of distress and did not abandon him, although she was stronger than him as appears in the text of the research, but all credit is attributed to him
Finally, Baal became the chief deity and singular from the rest, especially since the two strongest of the two are the ancient god El and the god Mut, whom no one could stand in front of.

Women and Peace in Iraq Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects for A Better Future

Zeynep N. Kaya; Ilham Makki Hammadi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 475-529

We talked to 91 women (and some men) activists, civil society representatives, journalists, legal experts and academics in Baghdad, Basra, Erbil, Kirkuk, Najaf and Nineveh. We listened to what they had to say about peace and justice, existing challenges to achieving these, and how the challenges can and should be overcome. We adopted a lens that focuses on women and gender and through this lens we looked at the processes of formal and informal peacebuilding and transitional justice.
As expected, the research showed that Iraqi activists have valuable insights to offer when it comes to issues of peace and justice in Iraq. It also showed that Iraqi peace activists work hard, indeed harder than the government, and make real change and impact on the ground. However, despite the impressiveness and value of this work, it remains small-scale and unnoticed as it is surrounded by a large web of ‘continuum of violence’,[i] legal and institutional obstacles, long-term gendered structural context, social gender norms and a political establishment that adheres to a conservative and patriarchal interpretation of religious and tribal norms. The obstacles and limitations to women’s participation in peacebuilding are immense and manifold, but these have not stopped Iraqi women in the past and will not stop them today or in the future either.
Several important insights and lessons emerged from our conversations. It is impossible to do justice to all that rich and incredible knowledge, experience, and wisdom. However, here is an attempt to summarise the most important messages to emerge out of these:
First, this research showed that there is a rich plethora of definitions of peace in Iraq. Peace activities are defined in a comprehensive way by women and men in Iraq, which goes well beyond the narrow, formal conceptions of peace and justice..
Second, Iraqi activists define and understand peace and its relationship to justice in different ways and these depend on the line of work they pursue, the circumstances of the province, and the specific community, group or people and issue under discussion. Women peace activists and feminists call for a proper implementation of CEDAW and other international human rights principles that affect women and girls. However, this does not mean that they endorse the political agendas pursued by foreign states. Women peace and rights activities are stuck in a complicated place defined by the intersection of foreign funding and international/regional politics and this creates significant potential risks for them.
Third, so much existing peace work is going unnoticed in Iraq in which women and men of all ages, but especially the young, are working relentlessly. Despite difficult circumstances, these individuals and groups carry out impressive voluntary work often in collaboration with local civil society organisations.
Fourth, formal peacebuilding mechanisms, on the other hand, such as the Committee for Coexistence and Community Peace, had less positive attributes compared to their informal counterparts. Some of the local peace committees have carried out important work and have been more inclusive than the other formal mechanisms such as the Martyrs Foundation. Still, formal mechanisms are less inclusive and informal mechanisms, and only a small number of women take part in them.
Fifth, opinion is divided about the Iraqi National Plan regarding resolution 1325, which was seen by respondents as another form of formal peacebuilding. The Plan is considered to be a huge achievement in bringing the issue of women’s participation in peace processes to the political agenda. However, the Plan has not made a real impact and has not changed the status of women’s participation in formal peacebuilding and negotiations in Iraq. Some of the respondents, including women civil society representatives, had not even heard of the Plan while others had heard of it in name only but not witnessed any of its work. Most of the work and discussion in relation to INAP takes place in Baghdad and Erbil. However, the Plan mostly remains unimplemented due to a lack of political will and a limited budget to fund its activities.
Sixth, there is huge discrepancy between existing transitional justice mechanisms used by the Iraqi government and what respondents called ‘real justice’, as well as legal discrimination against women, a lack of legal protection for women, and the lack of punishment for perpetrators of violence against women. Respondents provided a much wider scope of issues and activities in relation to peace and transitional justice, issues that go beyond the formal justice procedures offered by the government.
Seventh, customary rules have a significant impact on women’s participation in peacebuilding by limiting women’s participation in public life

[i]Cockburn, Cynthia, 2004. ‘The Continuum of Violence: A Gender Perspective on War and Peace’. In Sites of Violence: Gender and Conflict Zones, eds. W. Giles and J. Hyndman. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 24-44.

Common Challenges in Institutions of Education and Higher Education in Iraq Analytical- Social Study

Ghada A. Saeed; Harith H. Ayoub

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 530-551

Today the world goes through many challenges and difficulties which can only be addressed by science and knowledge, so the educational institution- which consists of a group of stages beginning with the pre-school stage through the primary and secondary stages and ending with the university stage represented by higher education institutions- shares the providing of the individual with knowledge which enables him/her address the requirements of life and this process entails a number of elements such as the existence of a student, a schoolteacher, a teacher, a professor and a scientific material whether theoretical or practical. The scientific institution, with its two types: the educational and the higher education, may face common challenges whether social, economic, political and cultural. Hence our research emerges trying to shed light on these challenges to find solutions for them via recommendations which the researchers have come up with in this research. in this research, the two researchers have adopted the analytical descriptive approach to achieve the goals of the research which has come up with a number of results the most prominent of which are the insufficient scientific buildings, the limited proficiency of the teaching staff together with the increase in failure rates among students in the education sector and the higher education in addition to that the curricula are old and do not fit the scientific and technological advances in schools and universities namely in the humanitarian studies.