Systemic Thinking Among University Students
Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities,
2022, Volume 2022, Issue 4, Pages 4201-4233
AbstractThis study aims to identify the systemic thinking among students of the University of Anbar, the significance of the statistical differences in systemic thinking according to the gender variables (males, females), and the specialization (scientific, humanitarian) among university students. The researchers adopted a descriptive correlative approach in their research. The research sample consisted of (320) male and female students from the University of Anbar for the academic year 2020-2021. The sample was chosen randomly, stratified sample. The researchers built a scale (Systemic thinking) according to Bartlett’s theory (Bartlett, 2001), which consisted of two areas, with a rate of (52) items, and the alternatives for correcting items were binary by giving a score of (1) to the answer that expresses the characteristic of Systemic thinking and giving (zero) to the answer that does not represent the attribute, The researchers verified the psychometric properties of the scale, using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), including: (chi-square, t-test for one sample, Point-Baserial correlation coefficient, and the Cronbach Alpha equation.
The results revealed the following:
University students are characterized by a high level of systemic thinking. There is no statistically significant difference according to the gender variable (males, females) in the systemic thinking scale. There is a statistically significant difference according to the specialization variable (scientific, humanitarian) in the systemic thinking scale in favor of the scientific specialization
1. Abu Gado, Mohamed Saleh, and Noufel, Mohamed Bakr (2010): teaching thinking theory and practice, i3, Dar Al-Masirah, Amman, Jordan.
2. Ahmed, Mohamed Abdel Salam (1981): psychological and educational measurement, Vol.4, Arab renaissance library, Cairo, Egypt.
3. Al-Asadi, Riam Saad Hamza Kazim (2020): the impact of the teaching journey model on the achievement of average first-graders in science and coordinated thinking, unpublished master's thesis, Faculty of Basic Education, University of Babylon, Iraq.
4. Barakat, Ziad Amin (2005): the relationship between reflective thinking and achievement in a sample of undergraduate and high school students in the light of some demographic variables, Faculty of Education, University of Bahrain, Journal of educational and psychological sciences, Vol. (6), Issue (4).
5. Bahgat, Refaat Mahmoud and Mansour, Abdel Fattah Ahmed and Amani, Rafat Ahmed (2012): Independent Studies a proposed model for stimulating coordinated thinking in outstanding students, i ۱, world of books, Cairo, Egypt.
6. Darwaza, Afnan Nazir (2020): Darwaza classification of educational goals: an amendment to Anderson's classification modified to bloom's classification of educational goals, International Journal of educational and psychological studies, Volume (8), Issue (1), pp. 77-90, Palestine.
7. De Bono, Edward (2005): teaching thinking, translated by: Adel Abdulkarim Yassin, Iyad Ahmed Melhem and Tawfiq Ahmed al-Omari, Dar Al-Reda publishing house, Jordan.
8. Rabea, Mohamed Shehata (1994): personality measurement, University Knowledge House, Alexandria.
9. Rizk, Hanan (2002): the role of some educational media in the development and consolidation of moral values among young people under the new world order, Journal of the Faculty of education in Mansoura, Vol. (48), issue (79).
10. Reynolds, Giselle, and Livingston, Ronald. B (2013): mastering modern psychometry - theories and methods, translated by: Salahuddin Mahmoud Allam, Dar Al-Fikr publishing, Amman.
11. Al-Zamili, Ali abduljassim, Abdullah Al-sarimi, Ali Kazim (2009): concepts and applications in educational assessment and measurement, Al-Falah library for publishing and distribution, Kuwait .
12. Al-Zibari, saber Abdullah said (1997): psychometric characteristics of verbal attitudes and declarative phrases in the construction of a personality scale, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Baghdad, Faculty of Education Ibn Rushd, Iraq.
13. Zeinab, Choucair (2006): early detection and integrated care of excellence, talent and creativity, Anglo-Egyptian library, Cairo,. Egypt.
14. Obeidat, zuqan, Kayed Abdul Haq and Abdul Rahman ADAS (2016): scientific research "its concept, tools and methods", i17, Dar Al-Fikr publishing house, Amman.
15. Afaneh, Azzo and Nashwan, Tayseer (2004): metacognitive strategies in the development of thinking skills, Arab Society Library for publishing and distribution, Amman, Jordan.
16. Odeh, Ahmed Suleiman, and Al-Khalili, Khalil Youssef (1988): statistics for researcher in education and humanities, i2, Dar Al-Amal, Irbid, Jordan.
17. Al-Issawi, Abdel Rahman Mohamed (1985): measurement and experimentation in psychology and education, Dar Al-marefa for publishing and distribution, Egypt.
18. Al-fatli, Hussein Hashim Hindol (2016): basic principles in educational and psychological measurement and evaluation, Al-wadhah publishing house, Amman, Jordan.
19. Farag, Safwat(1980): Psychometrics, Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi, Cairo, Egypt.
20. Qatami, Naifa (2001): teaching thinking for the basic stage, Dar Al-Fikr for printing, publishing and distribution, Amman, Jordan.
21. Al-Kubaisi, Kamel Thamer (1995): the effect of the difference in sample size and society on the discriminatory power of psychological measures, experimental study, University of Baghdad, Faculty of Education Ibn Rushd, Iraq.
22. Al-Kubaisi, Kamel Thamer (2001) the relationship between logical analysis and statistical analysis of paragraphs of psychological scales, Al-Ustad Magazine, Issue (25), University of Baghdad, Faculty of Education Ibn Rushd, Iraq.
23. Mohamed, Amani Raafat Ahmed (2011): the effectiveness of the entrance of Independent Studies in teaching science in the development of some scientific concepts and skills of coordinated thinking among outstanding students in the preparatory stage, master's thesis, Department of curricula and teaching methods, Faculty of education in Qena, Egypt.
24. Al-Masri, Mohammed Abdul-Majid (1999): the impact of the direction of the paragraph and the method of its formulation on the psychometric characteristics of personality measures and according to the level of psychological health of the respondent, unpublished doctoral thesis, Faculty of Education Ibn Rushd, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
25. Melhem, Sami Mohammed (2002): research methods in education and psychology, Al Masirah publishing and distribution house, Amman, Jordan.
Younis, Samir, Abdul Rahim Salama, Yousef Al-Enezi and Saad al-Rashidi (2014): educational research methods between theory and practice, Dar Al-Falah publishing house, Kuwait.
- Abd El Hamid. (2005). Systems and carve thinking, Pathways to Higher Education Project. Center for Advancement of Postgraduate Studies and Research in Engineering Sciences, Faculty of Engineering Cairo University.
- Ackoff, R. L. & Gharajedaghi, J. (1996). Reflections on systems and their models. Systems Research, 13(1), 13-23.
- Anastasi , A. (1988). Psychological Testing , New York , 6th Macmillan publishing.
- Atwater, J. B., & Pittman, P. H. (2006). Facilitating systemic thinking in business classes. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 4(2), 273-292.
- Bartlett, G. (2001). Systemic thinking: a simple thinking technique for gaining systemic focus. In The International Conference on Thinking" Breakthroughts (pp. 1-14).
- EbeL, R. L. (1972). Essentials of Educational Measurement. New Jersey: Eugewood Cliffs prentice – all.
- Ghiselli, E. E. et al. (1981). Measurement theory for the behavioral Sciences. San Francisco: Freeman & Company.
- Henrysoon, S., (1963). Correction of Hem-total correlation in item analysis Psychometric. Vol. 28, No.3.
- Holden, R. R. et al (1985). Structured Personality Test Item: Characteristics and Validity, Journal Research in Personality, Vol. 19, PP.386-394.
- Kroll, A. (1960). "Item Validity as A factor in test Validity " Journal of Education Psychology, Vol-13, No. 2, PP.425-436.
- Mayer, J (2000): spiritual intelligence of spiritual consciousness the International Journal for the Psychology.
Sterling, S. (2004). Systems Thinking. IND. Tilburg & D. Worman (Eds.), Engaging People in Sustain ability, Commission on Education and Communication, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
- Article View: 1
- PDF Download: 2