Volume 2022, Issue 2 (Vol 19- Issue 2- 2022), Spring 2022, Page 870-2047


The Follower (Al-tabi'y) Ubaydu-ALLah Bin Abi Bakrah Historical Study

Ali A. Al-Zoaba'y; Mudhir A.A

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 870-897
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174751

The research studies the personal life of the follower Ubaydu-Allah bin Abi Bakrah and his political, administrative, and scientific impact in the Arab Islamic state, as he belonged to a family that has its merits and predecessors in Islam. His father was one of the Prophet's (Peace and Blessing Be upon him) freed slaves. Abi Bakrah was born and brought up in Al-Rashidi era, and acquired science and learning in the best centuries, the first century AH. His family occupied a close position to the governors and caliphs. Abi Bakrah had many virtues, characterized by honesty and trustworthiness, and won the confidence of the princes and caliphs of his contemporary period. He was characterized by good qualities and virtuous qualities that made him the object of respect and appreciation of everyone.                                                            
        He had important effects in the Arab Islamic state in the Umayyad period. He had political, administrative and scientific implications, in addition to his generosity, free giving, which is a commendable effect in this world and the hereafter. All these effects qualified him to be among those who were immortalized in history. 

The city of aydhij, a study in its political and cultural conditions

Muhammad Hassan Suhail Al-Dulaimi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 898-925
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174752

Abstract :  aydhij, one of the seven cities of Al-Ahwaz that was conquered in a year17h at the hands of the Muslim Arabs under the leadership of Al-Numan bin Muqrin Al-Muzni, had an important role in the events of Islamic history in the medieval era, especially in the Abbasid era, in the military and political events. Its participation in the sixth century AH became the political capital of the independent Greater Lorestan Emirate It continued until the first quarter of the ninth century AH, during which the city witnessed a wide urban movement and development in the intellectual and educational field, as well as its economic prosperity due to three factors (capital, markets, industries.

The approach of Abu Bakr al-Maliki in his book Riyadh al-Nufus

Muthan W. Jarad; Lateef K. Mohammed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 926-958
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174753

Abu Bakr al-Maliki is considered one of the most prominent figures of Arab and Islamic history because he left us with books that drew the attention of historians and researchers, ancient and modern. A study in this regard through his method in his book, Riyadh Al-Nofous, and the importance of his book comes from the political, economic, social, cultural and literary information it included, as well as the historical material for its reliance in authorship on historical sources. It is historical, and it is considered a link between the sciences of history, translations and biographies. Therefore, this study came under the title (The Approach of Abu Bakr Al-Maliki in Riyadh Al-Nonfood..

Imam Muhammad bin Al-Hussein bin Abdullah Al-Baghdadi Al-Ajri (d. 360 AH) And his approach in his book “Akhlaq al-Ulama

Alaa Nafeh Jassim

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 959-982
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174754

Ethics are among the affirmations of faith in Islam, and therefore it is not possible to separate them. A bad character cannot be a believer because they contradict each other in principle. The believer must be of great morals, imitating the teachings of God and His Noble Messenger, faith here in God and his lordship, and his care of creation in managing their affairs and treating one another well.
And the scholars in terms of the necessity of having morals in terms of importance after the greatest Messenger, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him. Especially adherence to morals and ethics by seeking and spreading knowledge.
The research included identifying the biography of Al-Ujri, the status of ethics in Islam, as well as identifying the ethics of some Muslim philosophers, defining the importance of the book, and then addressing Al-Ujri's approach and style

Occupation and Profession in the Book ((GhayaT Al-Nahiya fi Tabaqat Al-Reader)) by Ibn Al-Jazari Died 833 A.H

Fatima Zabar Anazan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 982-1007
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174755

He followed an approach based on the presentation and analysis of his money related to his translator’s job and profession. Or abbreviated, and make it directly related to the events that were intertwined in the translation and presented in an administrative, scientific or literal manner and other conditions in which the Arab and Islamic countries were.

the attitude of people Andalusia on the spread of the Hanafi doctrine ( a historical study)

Anees Mohammed Jasim AL-Mashhadani

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1007-1060
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174756

I have dealt with in this research a study (the attitude of people Andalusia on the spread of the Hanafi doctrine - a historical study), which is considered one of the most important topics that solves some Islamic doctrines problems such as ; its emergence, and the reasons for their spread in some Islamic cities while it is declining in other cities.
The study of this topic is different from previous studies, which dealt with Islamic doctrines of thought in the land of Andalusia such as a jurisprudential study, the definition of its origins, its approach, and its jurisprudential opinions.
The Hanafi doctrine is considered one of the first Islamic doctrines, and the most widespread in the Islamic countries like of the other cities, which opened their doors to this doctrine until it is spread and settled in it, and became the controlling  to  all aspects of life in these cities.
Although the country of Andalusia was at the beginning of its era, it was affected by the Islamic East in various aspects, but it did not open its doors to this doctrine.
I showed in this research the reasons for the non-proliferation of the Hanafi doctrine of thought in the country of Andalusia, which were political, scientific, social and geographical reasons.

The role of Muslim scholars in psychiatry

Zainab Kamel Kareem

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1061-1091
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174757

The aim of the research is to shed light on the efforts of Muslim scholars in psychiatric knowledge and its evolution in the Arab and Islamic civilization and to show these scholars impact on the development of this type of medicine. Some cities, especially Baghdad, were known as a center for medical education and the establishment of rules for organizing the practice of medicine through transportation, translation and authorship, so that it was the first hospital  He was held for psychotherapy in Baghdad, as his statement will come in the research
 Among the core focuses of the research is to demonstrate the efforts of two famous scholars, Abi Zayd Al-Balkhi in his book “Mashal al-Ibdan wa al-Anfs” and Ibn Sina in his book “The Law of Medicine”.
 Rather, the focus was on these two scholars because of their prominent impact in the field of preventive psychiatry, mental health preservation, and clinical psychiatry in treating and diagnosing mental illnesses, knowing their causes, and giving treatment, prescriptions, and methods of recovery from these diseases

The role of Banu Abd al – Ashhal in the era of Caliph Abu Baker al-Siddiq (peace be upon him) ( 11AH – 13 AH / 632AD - 634 AD)

Marwa Hassan Ali Al- Qaisy; Siham J. Hammadi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1092-1116
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174758

This research deals with the study of Banu Abd al-Ashhal, one of the most important and largest clans of the Aws al-Ansari tribe, and their role during the era of Caliph Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (may God be pleased with him). It may include their participation in the Islamic army to fight the Romans in the first military launch after the death of the Prophet (peace and blessings of God be upon him).  The research also included a study of the heroic role presented by Banu Abd al-Ashhal in the wars of apostasy, the most dangerous movements that confronted the complete Islamic state, and also included a study of their great role in collecting and preserving the Holy Qur’an from loss.  The battles against the polytheists, including the battle of Ajnaden and the battle of Marj al-Safar.

altaabieiu aljalil eata' bin 'abi rabaah (114 AH / 732 AD) And His biography and scientific position

Sanaa Shindi Awwan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1117-1136
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174759

The Islamic history is full of characters that have features greatly different from others, especially, the figures of first and second Hijri centuries that are nearer to the Islamic age. One of those is Atta' bin Abi Rabah; he was a diligent Imam, as well as he was an adorer, mystic, and jurist that made great scientific efforts from childhood till he increased knowledge. In addition, his intention is characterized with sincerity towards Allah in his asking, consequently. Allah gave him virtue regarding his religion and life, and made the imamate something obligatory for him at his time. Though he was a gladiator and had a black colored face, and he even didn't have money nor cultural position, Allah gave him a distinctive feature by raising his value for he is mystic, sincere and pure. Moreover, many jurists at his time had refered to his characteristics, traced and went after his strategy in being diligent when searching science , work, and virtues, and they always remembered him with good memories .

The orientalists' travelers are the future of a colonial project

Mohammed J. Abid; Qahtan A. Bakr

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1137-1162
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174760

Oriental travelers played a prominent role in dealing with oriental studies from its early stages through the collection of Islamic manuscripts, their transmission to the West, their preservation and indexing. The orientalists roamed the Islamic lands and bought Islamic manuscripts at the lowest prices. The orientalist travelers also carried out personal authorship, the products of which were going to the colonial governments, with the intrusion and discrediting of their books and their export to the East. In addition, these travelers dealt with the political, economic and social conditions of Islamic countries. Some link between Orientalism and colonialism, as the first is considered an introduction to the second. The first was conducting a cultural survey of Arab and Muslim countries, and colonialism advances when the picture of the colonized countries is complete.

The policy of the British administration in southern Sudan 1922 - 1955

Hassan R. Khalaf; Abdulsatar J. Abid

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1163-1188
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174761

Policy of British Administration in South Sudan 1922-1955 Profi Dr Hassan Rekan Chalaf- Al.Iraqia_Universily_College of Ar Prof.Dr. Abdul Satar Ji'eger Abd- Al-Anbar University.college of Edu British Administration in South Sudan followed apolicy aims to abrupt the preparing isolation, it took. advantage of the bad situation, which Southermems Suffered like the ignorance and deprivation of all life's aspects, the administration cooperated with foreign missionaries that Came South unity of Nationdl line with the Sons of the north in especially the British ones to implement that policy, that aimed to isolate South Sudan From its North. British, Administration Followed the path of British Government iself, it initiatel the encbsed societies that prevented the Comunications betwey. the northe South, thas missionaries played akey node in seperating instead of practicCing its true role which is the contribution of developing South Sudan and enhance servicos to its people, Hence, choosing the title Came to Shad light Administration on the nature of policy followed by the British in the Sauth and the start back to 1922 by issuing the Law of endlosed Areas to isolate South From north, it ended in 1955 were mutiny took pace in southern Sudan, and thatwas one of the results of that policy, reserchs chapters would clarify this clearly.

Harold Wilson and the conspiracy theory 1974-1986

Ahmed M. Abdullah; Hussein H. Abid

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1189-1208
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174762

Witnessed Britain in the 1970s a Political rivalry for Power and the involvement of outside parties that had a major impact on the domestic problems between the Prime Minister and the Military Intelligence, Section 5 (MI5) especially since Harold Wilson had friendly relations with communist businessmen, which made the agency focus their interest on all elements nearby Wilson and interrogated to see the extent of his external engagement and this raised Wilson and make confirming the theory of conspiracy against him and his Government

The British withdrawal from the Persian Gulf 1968-1971 and its impact on British-Saudi relations

Ali A.Allawi; Mohammed Y Ahmad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1209-1223
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174763

The British decision to withdraw from the Arabian Gulf after more than a century of presence in that vital region of the world did not come arbitrarily or abruptly. Among the countries most affected by the decision to withdraw because of the presence of key issues and concerns related to the British presence in the Gulf, so this withdrawal is double-edged for Saudi Arabia; On the other hand, he raised the concerns of Riyadh because of the dangers and regional and international threats that will emerge after the British withdrawal.

Secondary education in Dulaim District 1945-1958

Omer K Ibrahim; Ali Hussein Ali

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1224-1247
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174764

Education received the attention of the monarchy in Iraq, especially after the developments that the country witnessed after World War II in all political, economic and cultural aspects. The interest is no longer limited to primary education only, but also includes secondary education, and Dulaim District is important in that area due to geographical factors in terms of The area and proximity to the capital, Baghdad, increased, so it witnessed an interest in secondary education during the period from 1945 to the end of the royal era in 1958.

The Economic Role of Jews of Algeria for the Period (1794-1830 A.D)

Rabiha Mohammed Khudair

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1248-1274
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174765

Algeria represented a political and economic importance for the European countries in the sevententh and the eighteenthcenturies and they were an attraction factor for many categories of people to live in. So the Algerian society was a blend of many races and sects and Jews were one of these sects that lived in Algeria and they enjoyed their religious, social and economic rights. Jews could, gradually, expand their economic activity in an apparant manner, not on the domestic level only, but on the foreign level as well, that they controled the economy of Algeria and dominated its internal and external trade due to their strong ties with other states that enabled them from establishing transactions with European countries in general and with France in particular that led, later on, to the accumulation of France debts to Algeria and that was the reason that resulted in occupying Algeria by France in 1830 A.D.

Libya's efforts in decolonization and combating racial discrimination within the framework of the Organization of African Unity since 1969

Ibtihal A. Ismael; Ali N. Mohammed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1275-1294
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174766

After the establishment of the Organization of the African Unity in 1963 , One of its main goals and principles was the decolonization of all forms and working to grant the African states their full independence. Also, this organization took care to support the African states that suffer from racial discrimination. Depending on these goals, Libya has played very important role in resisting the Colonialism in the African Continent through supporting the Colonized African states materially and morally. Libya also participated in supporting the  national movements to put an end to racial discrimination in some of its affiliated African states.

Early American infiltration into China 1791-1895

Fatin S. Aoda

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1295-1319
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174767

Infiltration is one of the influential  methods that a state follows to achieve the goals of its personal policy to demonstrate its powers, maintain a balance with other countries, and secure the requirements of its national security as well as economic reasons that pave the way for obtaining certain benefits. This method was applied to US-Chinese relations during the research period.
    This research aims to shed light, albeit in a nutshell, on the early stages of the American infiltration into China. The study period extends from 1791 to 1895, as the first date represents the first official attempts of that infiltration, especially after the American Congress issued a decision to reduce customs duties by 10% on imported goods from China without exception. ; While the second historiography represented the role of American diplomacy in mediating the end of the Japanese-Chinese war in 1895.                               
    The research is divided into two main axes. The first deals with the beginnings of the American infiltration into China until 1842, while the second axis deals with strengthening the American influence in China (1842-1895) by concluding a number of treaties with the Chinese government, those treaties that consolidated American infiltration in East Asia. In general, and China in particular.

Syria and the civil Lebanese war 1975 – 1982

FADIL JASSIM MANSOOR

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1320-1352
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174768

Lebanon faced many internal and external difficulties which led to different shapes of internal conflict. It took the shape of religious sectarian conflict between Muslims and Christians as well as  Arab-Zionist conflict on one hand, And the palastanian existence in Lebanon on the other hand. These matters contributed in flaming the Lebanese civil war and led to the intrusion of many countries one of which was Syria which played a political and military important role. It tried to control over the Lebanese politics and prevent it from any external projects.This war lasted from 1975 to 1982

The political system of the city of Athens

Mohamed H. Abid; Ziyad O. Swidan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1353-1373
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174769

The city of Athens has emerged in ancient Greece in all fields, the most important of which is the process of political organization, as this city witnessed several ruling political systems in addition to legal legislation that contributed to the development of Athenian politics as well as the social structure. Therefore, the city of Athens is one of the advanced Greek cities that have made great achievements, especially in Its political systems at the time, therefore, our study focused on the concepts of its political systems, in addition to the achievements and developments that it had achieved in all fields during that period, and consequently the city of Athens struck the most wonderful examples of developing political systems at all different stages.

Singularity of god baal

Marwan Najah Mahdi AL_Balam

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1373-1398
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174770

In this study, I dealt with the first beginnings of the god Baal and how he was mythically ascended to the god El, and also detailed in the research the attempt of the god El to deter the god Baal in order not to be unique in the universe, so he wanted his son Yam and then died in order to reduce him
It also reviewed the position of his wife Anan, who was the second factor in fertility and how she stood with her husband in times of distress and did not abandon him, although she was stronger than him as appears in the text of the research, but all credit is attributed to him
Finally, Baal became the chief deity and singular from the rest, especially since the two strongest of the two are the ancient god El and the god Mut, whom no one could stand in front of.

Women and Peace in Iraq Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects for A Better Future

Zeynep N. Kaya; Ilham Makki Hammadi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1399-1453
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174771

We talked to 91 women (and some men) activists, civil society representatives, journalists, legal experts and academics in Baghdad, Basra, Erbil, Kirkuk, Najaf and Nineveh. We listened to what they had to say about peace and justice, existing challenges to achieving these, and how the challenges can and should be overcome. We adopted a lens that focuses on women and gender and through this lens we looked at the processes of formal and informal peacebuilding and transitional justice.
As expected, the research showed that Iraqi activists have valuable insights to offer when it comes to issues of peace and justice in Iraq. It also showed that Iraqi peace activists work hard, indeed harder than the government, and make real change and impact on the ground. However, despite the impressiveness and value of this work, it remains small-scale and unnoticed as it is surrounded by a large web of ‘continuum of violence’,[i] legal and institutional obstacles, long-term gendered structural context, social gender norms and a political establishment that adheres to a conservative and patriarchal interpretation of religious and tribal norms. The obstacles and limitations to women’s participation in peacebuilding are immense and manifold, but these have not stopped Iraqi women in the past and will not stop them today or in the future either.
Several important insights and lessons emerged from our conversations. It is impossible to do justice to all that rich and incredible knowledge, experience, and wisdom. However, here is an attempt to summarise the most important messages to emerge out of these:
First, this research showed that there is a rich plethora of definitions of peace in Iraq. Peace activities are defined in a comprehensive way by women and men in Iraq, which goes well beyond the narrow, formal conceptions of peace and justice..
Second, Iraqi activists define and understand peace and its relationship to justice in different ways and these depend on the line of work they pursue, the circumstances of the province, and the specific community, group or people and issue under discussion. Women peace activists and feminists call for a proper implementation of CEDAW and other international human rights principles that affect women and girls. However, this does not mean that they endorse the political agendas pursued by foreign states. Women peace and rights activities are stuck in a complicated place defined by the intersection of foreign funding and international/regional politics and this creates significant potential risks for them.
Third, so much existing peace work is going unnoticed in Iraq in which women and men of all ages, but especially the young, are working relentlessly. Despite difficult circumstances, these individuals and groups carry out impressive voluntary work often in collaboration with local civil society organisations.
Fourth, formal peacebuilding mechanisms, on the other hand, such as the Committee for Coexistence and Community Peace, had less positive attributes compared to their informal counterparts. Some of the local peace committees have carried out important work and have been more inclusive than the other formal mechanisms such as the Martyrs Foundation. Still, formal mechanisms are less inclusive and informal mechanisms, and only a small number of women take part in them.
Fifth, opinion is divided about the Iraqi National Plan regarding resolution 1325, which was seen by respondents as another form of formal peacebuilding. The Plan is considered to be a huge achievement in bringing the issue of women’s participation in peace processes to the political agenda. However, the Plan has not made a real impact and has not changed the status of women’s participation in formal peacebuilding and negotiations in Iraq. Some of the respondents, including women civil society representatives, had not even heard of the Plan while others had heard of it in name only but not witnessed any of its work. Most of the work and discussion in relation to INAP takes place in Baghdad and Erbil. However, the Plan mostly remains unimplemented due to a lack of political will and a limited budget to fund its activities.
Sixth, there is huge discrepancy between existing transitional justice mechanisms used by the Iraqi government and what respondents called ‘real justice’, as well as legal discrimination against women, a lack of legal protection for women, and the lack of punishment for perpetrators of violence against women. Respondents provided a much wider scope of issues and activities in relation to peace and transitional justice, issues that go beyond the formal justice procedures offered by the government.
Seventh, customary rules have a significant impact on women’s participation in peacebuilding by limiting women’s participation in public life



[i]Cockburn, Cynthia, 2004. ‘The Continuum of Violence: A Gender Perspective on War and Peace’. In Sites of Violence: Gender and Conflict Zones, eds. W. Giles and J. Hyndman. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 24-44.

Common Challenges in Institutions of Education and Higher Education in Iraq Analytical- Social Study

Ghada A. Saeed; Harith H. Ayoub

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1454-1475
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174772

Today the world goes through many challenges and difficulties which can only be addressed by science and knowledge, so the educational institution- which consists of a group of stages beginning with the pre-school stage through the primary and secondary stages and ending with the university stage represented by higher education institutions- shares the providing of the individual with knowledge which enables him/her address the requirements of life and this process entails a number of elements such as the existence of a student, a schoolteacher, a teacher, a professor and a scientific material whether theoretical or practical. The scientific institution, with its two types: the educational and the higher education, may face common challenges whether social, economic, political and cultural. Hence our research emerges trying to shed light on these challenges to find solutions for them via recommendations which the researchers have come up with in this research. in this research, the two researchers have adopted the analytical descriptive approach to achieve the goals of the research which has come up with a number of results the most prominent of which are the insufficient scientific buildings, the limited proficiency of the teaching staff together with the increase in failure rates among students in the education sector and the higher education in addition to that the curricula are old and do not fit the scientific and technological advances in schools and universities namely in the humanitarian studies.

Solid Waste and its Relation to the Efficiency of Municipal Services in Ramadi and Fallujah - A Geographical View

Salah A. Mejwal; Natheir S. Al-muhemdi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1476-1510
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174773

This research sheds light on the most important services performed by the municipality in the cities of Ramadi and Fallujah associated with solid waste and the problems caused by the efficiency of the performance of municipal services in it requires a detailed study of the uses of land in the city in all sectors, which will lead to know the size, quantity and quality of waste for collection Residential and commercial areas, industrial areas, hospitals, health clinics, parks and parks are among the most urban areas that generate solid waste. Jobs within Ramadi and Fallujah vary considerably due to Activities which are experiencing interference in the residential and commercial activity in both cities and the resulting residue nature related Bhaven sectors.

Geographical distribution of the oil and gas industry in Anbar Governorate

Majed S. A; Subhi A. M

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1511-1542
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174774

This research aims to study the geographical distribution of the oil and gas industry in Anbar Governorate, as well as study the distribution of oil industries in the governorate from the oil refineries represented by Haditha refinery and pumping stations represented by the K3 station and Tewan station as well as the refining plants in the province represented by the Anbar plant, Al-Zaidan plant, and Akkas gas field.

Spatial analysis of the characteristics of health services and their areas of regional influence in the Heet district

Karim A. Hamed; Riyadh A. Ahmed

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1543-1568
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174775

The distribution of any phenomenon on the surface of the earth is the essence of geography because geography is concerned with the spatial distribution of phenomena on the surface of the earth as all phenomena are linked to each other and health services are an important and necessary human geographic phenomenon in development plans, and health services are represented by health institutions that are concerned with public health and health The individual being part of the community that the optimal signature of health services contributes to finding ease of access and increasing the efficiency of using them for the majority of the population of the judiciary, a goal that the research seeks to achieve according to geographical technologies.

Spatial analysis of the age structure of the population of Haditha District for the period 1997-2020

Mahmoud J. Abbas; Dr. Ahmed Salman Hammadi Salman Al-Falahi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1569-1593
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174776

The study of the age structure is an important element to follow the changes between different population groups, and based on that, the aim of the study was to study the age structure and its indicators for the population of a modern district with its administrative borders(1997-2020).
 The study showed that the age structure is constantly changing, as the general trend of the younger age groups is decreasing, which led to a decrease in the proportion of the youngest group (0-14) years.  While the middle age groups (15-64 years) their percentages tended to increase.  As for the elderly category, it was the least variable in the amount of the ratio and the most volatile and unstable in the direction of change. The relative change in the age structure contributed to the change in the dependency ratio, median age and aging index. The dependency ratio tended to decrease in all its types.  As for the median age, as a result of the increase in life expectancy at birth and the increase in the number of the population in the middle age groups, this contributed to raising the median age. 

The qualitative characteristics of the water of Lake Habbaniyah

Yazan J. Y; Qassem A. Raml

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1594-1623
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174777

The presence of lakes has some advantages and disadvantages, which are reflected on the quality and quality of water, and then restrict it to some different uses. Lake Habbaniyah worked on changing the properties of the water in it and raising the values ​​of most of the elements, and it affected the water quality of the Euphrates River, as the value of the salts increased from (431) mg / liter at the entrance to the lake, to reach (597) mg / liter when it exited the lake at the canal The flies regulator, as all sites indicated bacterial contamination of the lake water, the number of colon bacteria ranged between (930-300) cells/mm. Most of the water ions fall within the permissible limits for drinking purposes (human-animal), as for biological pollutants (colon and fecal bacteria), their presence is conclusive evidence of microbial contamination of water, which restricts the use of lake water for drinking purposes. For agricultural purposes, and for building and construction purposes, as for industrial purposes, there is a limited restriction for some industries that require water of certain specifications that are not available in lake water. As for the presence of coliform and fecal bacteria, it restricted the use of lake water for some uses, especially for drinking purposes.

The educational level of the parents affected the size of the family in Anbar province

Ayad Mohammad Makhlef Al- Adwan

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1624-1652
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174778

The research aims to verify the impact of the educational level of parents on the size of the family in Anbar province, using the results of the field study, where a questionnaire form was prepared for this purpose, and reached a decrease in the average size of the family in 2021, from 1997, the average urban was lower than the countryside, the average varied between the province districts, and came high in the districts of a rural nature, and the educational level of parents had an impact on the size of the family, and in reverse proportionality with the high level of education, and came the impact of the educational level of the provinces For the mother is higher than the influence of the father, where the high level of education of the mother contributed to the decrease in the size of the family more than the contribution of the educational level of the father.

The role of climatic elements in traffic accidents in Anbar Governorate

Mohanad Abed HAMMAD

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1653-1678
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174779

Climatic phenomena are one of the most important problems facing the Iraqi environment in western Iraq, specifically Anbar Governorate, especially dusty phenomena, rain, fog and temperatures, which have greatly affected the increase in the number of traffic accidents in Anbar Governorate, because it is related to the visibility of vehicle drivers, and based on the responsibility that falls on the geographer's responsibility was chosen as a study that shows the size of the problem and its close relationship to the climatic and environmental factors that cause traffic accidents.
    Through collecting and analyzing the data of the General Traffic Directorate, it was found that 1076 traffic accidents for the period from (2010-2018) 148 accidents were due to bad climatic conditions. The transport departments in Anbar Governorate indicated that the phenomenon of dust storms has a negative impact on the movement of transport, especially the Ramadi-Rutba, Ramadi-Al-Qaim, Haditha-Baiji roads, where dust storms caused 47 accidents, representing 4.3% of the total accidents, and fog recorded 63 accidents, or 5.8%, while accidents were caused by rain and temperatures 31 and 7 by 2.8% and 0.6%, respectively.

The role of population characteristics in the life cycle of residential neighborhoods in Ramadi City

Enas Mohammed Saleh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1679-1718
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174780

The city is a changing living organism characterized by  membership . activates , movement , growth and its membership is affected by a set of ecological variables that change in nature according to each stage of the cites growth . the competition , a series of social and residential mobility begins within the boundaries of the urban and space and the social space of the city itself , which makes the cites neighborhoods go through stages of development and growth in its physical variables represented in the size of population and their characteristics , the special space of its units , the price of land and the morphological shape of the neighborhood , as it begins with birth ( the emergence of the neighborhood ) then the youth ( maturity and stability in the residential neighborhood ) then the agene stage ( the resdantal neighborhood decays ) after which the stage of re – youth and recovery begins  ( the stage of renewal and revitalization ) .

Spatial distribution of telecommunication network services (Zain Iraq) in Al-Ramadi city and its efficiency by using the Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Furat H.S; Jinan M. M

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1719-1746
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174781

The research aimed is studying telecommunications networks (Zain Iraq) in Al-Ramadi city, in terms of spatial distribution to know its efficiency. The western part of the city with unserved areas up to (688 hectares) of the total area of the city, at a rate of (11،6%). This research is based on setting a realistic future vision for improving the network performance and reaching upgrading the telephone services to an acceptable degree of efficient communication, locative distribution and redistribution of towers, and opening new axes that can deliver the service to areas of population and economic importance for achieving social justice. From here the aims of the research that came out have been crystallized to the extent of the importance of geographical information systems (GIS), which gave another dimension to digital databases in terms of spatial linking of information, indicating land uses and studying changes that contribute to the optimal planning of the city.

Educational contents derived from the hadith of the Prophet about the three people, who were closed by the rocks, affecting the social interactions

Talal Ali muthanna Ahmad

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1747-1777
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174782

A study entitled: Educational contents derived from the hadith of the Prophet about the three people, who were closed by the rocks,, Using the deductive method, and the method of content analysis, to reach the goal of the study which is: To devise educational contents, from the hadith about the three people who had been blocked by the rock, the most important results of the study:
•The virtue of supplication and resorting to God by doing good deeds, favoring the righteousness of parents and maximizing their rights, favoring abstinence and distance from the forbidden, favoring honesty, and charity to the workers, and giving them their wages.
• The hadith included an educational approach to the relationship of a person to his father and mother, kindness to them and their righteousness, and their preference over anyone and their care and spending on them
•  The hadith included an educational approach to the relationship of a person to with a foreign woman, beware of being alone with her, and avoiding the exploitation of her need, chastity, and the pursuit of a legitimate bond with the woman.
• The hadith included an educational approach to the relationship of a person to with those who work for him in observing their rights, giving them their work wages as soon as the work ends, and preserving their dues.

The effect of employing the flipped Classroom on developing creative thinking skills and the attitude towards self-learning in mathematics among the tenth grade students in Palestine.

Abdul Karim M. Farajallah; Samir Musa Al -Najjar

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1778-1807
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174783

This study aimed to reveal the effect of employing the flipped classroom on developing creative thinking skills and the attitude towards self-learning in mathematics among tenth grade students in Palestine, and the researcher used the experimental approach. The study sample consisted of (76) students, from Abdul Karim Al-Aklouk Secondary School For boys. The study tools consisted of creative thinking skills test and the scale of the attitude towards self-learning. The study concluded that (1) there are statistically significant differences
 (α ≤ 0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental group students and their peers in the control group in the creative thinking skills post-test, in favour of the experimental group. (2) There are statistically significant differences
 (α ≤ 0.05) between the mean responses of the experimental group students and their peers in the control group on the scale of the attitude towards self-learning in mathematics in the post scale evaluation. Therefore, the study recommends that in-service teachers should be given training on modern strategies, including the flipped classroom strategy

The Effect of the Divergent Thinking Strategies in the multi lntelligence of the second Intermediate Class Female Students in Mathematics

Elaf G. Khaleel; Ilham J. Faris

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1808-1834
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174784

The research`s goal is to realize The Impact of Divergent Thinking Strategies In achievement and multiple intelligences, and to achieve the research goal, the experimental research method was adopted and a partially controlled experimental design was used for two groups equivalents, using the post test for both achievement and multiple intelligence. The research community was students of the second intermediate class in schools of the General Directorate of Education in Anbar, for the academic year 2019-2020. The sample of the research consisted of (64) students from (Al-Raja Secondary School for Girls). It includes three sections. Department (A) was chosen as an experimental group comprising (31) students and (B) the group as a control group consisting of (33) students. The two groups were an identity in some variables, experiment requirements were prepared, scientific material was analyzed, content was analyzed, behavioral purposes formulated, and teaching plans prepared And search tools (Achievement test in mathematics, multiple intelligence test) The achievement test consisted of (30) items that included) objective paragraphs, honesty, consistency and other psychometric characteristics were found using statistical means (T- test for two samples Two independent terms, the Alpha-Cronbach equation, And the coefficient of distinction difficulty The effectiveness of the alternatives for calculating the psychometric properties, the Levin test for two independent samples, and the Pearson equation), the following results were reached:
 There is a statistically significant difference at the level of significance (0.05) between the average scores of the experimental group students and the scores of the students of the control group in the Multi lntelligence test and for the benefit of the experimental group..

The development of secondary schools using the concept of the educated school

Sarab F. Mukhiber; Muthana I. Turky

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1835-1868
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174785

         Employing the dimensions of the learning organization contributes to a solid foundation towards developing the performance of secondary schools, resuming the original growth of the confirmed competitive advantage, because the old model based on the higher grant is thinking and other administrative levels are no longer useful.  Change in learning, learning, learning, learning, learning, learning, learning, change, change, big change, and the learning association ... Its development is through a continuous spiral movement that learns from the livelihood of the organization and teaches others.  The two researchers believe that public schools need more modernization and development after the appearance of good marks in private schools, which are required to obtain strong competition in growth rates and advancement. The educational matter necessitated correction of modern restrictions by the administrations of those schools and the transformation from traditional organizational structures to time organizations  Other surviving new institutions that were successful in this institution.
  Research objective Study objective and objective from the perspective of growth and objective in secondary schools and its transformation

The effect of brain-based learning on the achievement of fifth grade students in mathematics and their attitudes towards it

Entithar A. Al. Hamdani

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1869-1906
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174786

The aim of the current research is to identify (the effect of brain-based learning on the achievement of fifth-grade female students in mathematics and their attitudes towards it); The sample of the research consisted of (70) female students of the fifth scientific grade, and they were distributed equally into two experimental and control groups, with (35) students for each group. Lateral Thinking Test), the researcher prepared an achievement test consisting of (30) objective items of the type (multiple choice), and a measure of attitude towards mathematics consisting of (30) items with five alternatives (strongly agree, agree, disagree, disagree Strongly agree), distributed over six domains (attitude towards the nature of mathematics n direction towards the value of mathematics, towards enjoyment of mathematics, direction towards learning mathematics, direction towards mathematics school, and direction towards success in mathematics). The researcher taught the two groups, and after the experiment ended, the two tools were applied to the two research groups, and the results showed:
* There is a statistically significant difference at the significance level (0.05) between the average scores of the experimental group students who studied using brain-based learning and the average scores of the control group students who studied in the traditional way in the achievement test in favor of the experimental group.
* There is a statistically significant difference at the significance level (0.05) between the average scores of the experimental group students who studied using brain-based learning and the average scores of the control group students who studied in the traditional way in the measure of attitude towards mathematics in favor of the experimental group.

The effect of using the Newton educational platform on the achievement of fifth-grade literary students in the subject of the Noble Qur’an and Islamic education and their attitude towards e-learning

Wissam Kafi Hammoud Sharqi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1907-1931
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174787

The aim of the research is to identify the effect of using the Newton educational platform on the achievement of fifth-grade literary female students in the subject of the Noble Qur’an and Islamic education and their attitude towards e-learning. The research sample, in an intentional manner, consisted of (30) female students for each group. The equivalence between the two research groups was verified in the following variables: (the chronological age of the female students, the degrees of Islamic education for the previous year, and the intelligence test); To achieve the objectives of the research, the researcher prepared an achievement test of the type of multiple choice consisting of (40) items, by defining the scientific material, and formulating (120) behavioral objectives according to Bloom's classification of the cognitive domain, and a measure of the trend towards e-learning consisting of (30) items with three alternatives, And study plans were applied to the two research groups during the duration of the experiment, which lasted (12) weeks, and the validity and stability of the paragraphs were confirmed. It reached the following results:
- There is a statistically significant difference at the significance level (0.05) between the average of the experimental group and the control group in favor of the experimental group that was taught using the Newton platform in the post-achievement test and the measure of attitude towards e-learning

The academic identity of the faculty members at the University of Anbar

Noor R. Al.Alosi; Safi A. Saleh

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1932-1962
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174788

The current research aimed to identify:
1. The academic identity of the faculty members at the university.
2. Identifying the academic identity according to the following variables:
a. Gender (male – female(
B. Specialization (scientific – humanitarian(
c. Academic title (assistant teacher - teacher - assistant professor - professor)
Dr.. Age (30-39 years), (40-49 years), (50- and over(
     The research community included the faculty members at the University of Anbar for the academic year (2020/2021), whose number is (1669), of whom (1408) are teachers, and (261) are teaching, from whom a sample of (400) male and female teachers were chosen. By preparing the academic identity scale, verifying its psychometric properties, and after using appropriate statistical means, the research reached the following results:
- The faculty members have a high academic identity and are statistically significant
- There are no statistically significant differences in the academic identity of faculty members according to the gender variable (males - females), and the results also showed the presence of statistically significant differences in the academic identity of faculty members according to the variable of specialization (human - scientific) and in favor of the human, as well. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences in academic identity according to the academic title variable (M.D.M.D.A.M.D.A.D.), and the results also showed that there were no statistically significant differences in academic identity according to the age variable (30-3, 40-49.50 and above) for faculty members.

Rejection sensitivity of middle school students

Hanan M. Hamza; Shaima S. Hussein Al.Obaidy

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1963-1993
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174789

The current research aims to identify the level of rejection sensitivity of intermediate school students according to the gender variable (males, females) and the grade variable (first, second, and third), and the sample consisted of (504) middle school students in Baghdad, who were chosen by the random method. The two researchers built a rejection sensitivity scale suitable for the age stage in the current study, and the scale consisted of (24) items. The validity and reliability of the scale were verified, as the two researchers used the following appropriate statistical methods: the T-test, Fakronbach, the Pearson correlation coefficient, and the re-application method. . The following results were obtained: Intermediate school students have an above average level of rejection sensitivity.

The relationship between the difficulty and discrimination coefficients according to the two traditional measurement theories and the latent features of the items of the logical reasoning test among the sixth grade students.

Bilal T. Hussein

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 1994-2023
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174790

This study aimed to find the correlation between the factors of difficulty and Discrimination in the Classical Test theories and the Latent Trait Theory (Two-Parameter Logistic Model), and the researcher relied on the logical reasoning test prepared by the Assmentday Foundation, which is specialized in issuing various psychological tests in Britain in 2018. The researcher carried out the translation of the test instructions from English into Arabic because the paragraphs are forms, so he does not need to verify the validity of the translation because it crosses culture. The test was applied to a sample of (650) male and female students who were randomly selected from the sixth grade students. The statistical analysis of the items was carried out according to the two traditional measurement theories and the latent features, depending on the two-parameter model in analyzing the test items, as calculated by the Bilog-mg3 program, and no item was excluded from the test according to the two measurement theories. And discrimination according to the two measurement theories and it was found that the value of the correlation coefficient for the parameter of difficulty according to the two measurement theories (0.907) and the value of the correlation for the teacher of discrimination according to the two measurement theories (0.813), and all the correlation coefficients are positive and statistically significant at the level of significance (0.05). Some conclusions, recommendations and suggestions.

Flexible thinking and its relationship to some demographic variables among middle school students

Majid L. Abdulrazaq; Marwa S. Al-Rawi

Al-Anbar University Journal For Humanities, 2022, Volume 2022, Issue 2, Pages 2024-2047
DOI: 10.37653/juah.2022.174791

The aim of the research is to identify (flexible thinking and its relationship to some demographic variables among middle school students); The sample consisted of (370) male and female students from the preparatory stage for the fifth and sixth grades in their (scientific and literary) branches in the preparatory and secondary schools of the General Directorate of Education in Anbar, including (197) male and (173) female students, and (243) male and female students represented the scientific branch, and (127) students of the literary branch; The researchers prepared a flexible thinking test of (30) items (attitudes) with three alternatives, and they verified its psychometric properties; The results showed: middle school students are characterized by flexible thinking, and there are no statistically significant differences in the test due to the two variables (gender, branch of specialization).